Vocabulary List- Chapter 1

  • Psychology- The science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
  • Critical Thinking- The process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information.
  • Nature Nurture controversy- The ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment).
  • Interaction- The process in which multiple factors mutually influence one another and the outcome—as in the interaction between heredity and environment.
  • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic perspective- The focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts. Founded by Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician who was fascinated with the mind’s influence on behavior and the physical body.
  • Behavior Perspective- Emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior. The acknowledged founder of behaviorism is John B. Watson. Watson adopted Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov’s concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from observable stimuli and observable responses. B.F. Skinner made considerable attributions to behaviorism with his conviction that we could use behavior approaches to actually shape human behavior.
  • Humanist Perspective- Emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are two central figures in the development of humanism, they said that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward self-actualization.
  • Cognitive Perspective- Focuses on thought, perception, and information processing.
  • Control Group- group receiving no treatment in an experiment.
  • Experimenter bias- occurs when researcher influences research results in the expected direction.
  • Double-blind study- procedure in which both the researcher and the participants are unaware (blind) of who is in the experimental or control group.
  • Placebo- inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practitioner to a patient.
  • Ethnocentrism- believing that one’s culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one’s own ethnic group (or culture) as central and “correct,” and judging others according to this standard.
  • Sample bias- occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population.
  • Random assignment- using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups.
  • Random sampling- selecting participants who constitute a representative sample of the entire population of interest.
  • Participant bias- occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant’s behavior or mental processes.
  • Misattribution of Arousal- Physiologically aroused individuals makes mistaken inferences about what is causing the arousal.
  • Descriptive Research- Research methods that observe and record behavior without producing casual explanations.
  • Naturalistic Observation- Observation and recording of behavior in the participant’s natural state or habitat.
  • Survey- Research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes.
  • Case Study- In-depth study of a single research participant.
  • Correlational Research- Scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find the relationships between them.
  • Correlation Coefficient- A number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between the two variables.
    • Positive correlation- a correlation in which the two variables move (or vary) in the same direction- the two factors increase or decrease together.
    • Negative correlation- a correlation in which the two factors vary in opposite directions.
  • Biological Research- Scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
  • Psychiatrist vs. Psychology- a psychiatrist has a medical degree and a psychologist has a doctoral-level degree in psychology. Psychologists pursue a Ph.D. or Psy.D. in clinical or counseling psychology and psychiatrists have specific training in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illnesses.
  • Fields of Psychology-
    • Biopsychology/ neuroscience- investigates the relationship between biology, behavior, and mental processes, including how physical and chemical processes affect the structure and function of the brain and nervous system.
    • Clinical- specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders
    • Cognitive psychology- examines “higher” mental processes, including thought, memory, intelligence, creativity, and language
    • Counseling psychology- overlaps with clinical psychology but practitioners tend to work with less seriously disturbed individuals and conduct more career and vocational assessment.
    • Developmental psychology- studies the course of human growth and development from conception and until death
    • Educational and school psychology- studies the process of education and works to promote the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children in the school environment.
    • Experimental psychology- examines processes such as learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion, sensation, and perception in humans and other animals.
    • Forensic psychology- applies principles of psychology to the legal system, including jury selection, psychological profiling, and so on.
    • Gender and/ or cultural psychology- investigates how men and women and different cultures differ from one another and how they are similar.
    • Health psychology- studies how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness.
    • Industrial/ organizational psychology- applies the principles of psychology to the workplace, including personal selection and evaluation, leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation, and group process within the organization.
    • Social psychology- investigates the role of social forces and interpersonal behavior, including aggression, prejudice, love, helping, conformity, and attitudes.
  • Ways of looking at the brain
    • Brain dissection- studying of a cadaver brain to reveal structural details
    • Ablation/ lesions- removing or destroying parts of the brain to observe changes in behavior or mental processes
    • Clinical observations/ case studies- observing and recording changes in personality, behavior, or sensory capacity associated with brain disease or injuries
    • Electrical recordings (EEGs)- brain activity is recorded using electrodes attached to a person’s scalp
    • Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)- a weak current stimulates specific areas of the brain using an electrode
    • CT scan- computer created cross-sectional x-rays of the brain
    • PET scan- a scanner records the amount of glucose used in particularly active areas of the brain and produces computer-constructed picture of the brain.
    • MRI- a high-frequency magnetic field is passed through the brain by means of electromagnets
    • fMRI- a newer, faster version of the MRI that detects blood flow by picking up magnetic signals from blood that has given up its oxygen to activate brain cells

Outline- Chapter 1

  1. Psychology
    1. Root of the word
      1. psyche = mind
      2. logos = word
    2. Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes
      1. Behavior
        1. Anything we actively do
          1. Examples: talking, sleeping, walking, blinking, driving, dancing
      2. Mental Processes
        1. Internal experiences that are not shared with others
          1. Examples: thoughts, memories, ideas, nightmares, dreams
      3. There is a distinct difference between behavior and mental processes.
        1. For example, just daydreaming about robbing a bank (mental process) is not the same as actually robbing a bank (behavior)
    3. Places high value and emphasis on the importance of empirical evidence
      1. Empirical evidence is evidence and data collected by direct observation or measurement
    4. Critical thinking
      1. Essential to psychology as the process by which psychologists can objectively compare, analyze, synthesize and evaluate the information they collect and observe
    5. Pseudopsychologies
      1. Different from scientific psychology because not based on empirical evidence (pseudo = false)
        1. Psychics, Mediums, Palmistry, Psychometry, Psychokinesis, Astrology
  2. Goals of Psychology
    1. Describe
      1. Answers the question of “what” occurred
      2. Focuses on naming and classifying behaviors through observation
      3. Helps to understand behavior by providing specificity
    2. Explain
      1. Answers the question of “why” a behavior/metal process occurred
      2. Analyzes information and focuses on understanding what caused the action or thought
      3. Nature-nurture controversy
        1. Nature - Our behavior and thought processes are controlled by purely genetic and biological factors
        2. Nurture - Our behavior and thought processes are controlled solely by the environment
        3. Psychology rarely judges one side correct and the other incorrect, but instead discovers a happy medium between the two called interactions. In other words, the two interact with each other to control and influence behavior and thought processes.
    3. Predict
      1. Focuses on using collected data to identify (predict) the conditions under which future behavior and mental processes will occur.
    4. Change
      1. After collecting and observing data, psychologists focus on attempting to change or influence the future outcome to (usually) prevent negative outcomes or to accomplish goals.external image lP2dSHU60j5ZsPrdJrf3KVUh9o8YGU2sJJmfzEN3VGKTdXj4ihDwBvo5PszXr3farpqXD3pGb1wJw1_qNusGZidhpzoXzKUMPXMBUlrXTSaIvsKFmqE
  3. Origin of Psychology
    1. Relatively new science
    2. Born from the drive to interpret and understand human nature
    3. Plato
      1. Affect- emotions
      2. Cognition - awareness/thoughts
      3. Conation - actions/behavior
    4. Phrenology
      1. Study of bumps on the head
      2. Only “psychological” research done prior to Wundt
    5. Wihelm Wundt (1879)
      1. Credited as “father of psychology”
      2. Established first laboratory used for psychological studies
      3. Focused on study of conscious experiences
        1. Sensation, mental images, feelings
      4. Introspection
        1. Monitoring and reporting contents of the conscious (thoughts)
        2. Participants in studies were trained in introspection
  4. Structuralism
    1. Edward Titchener
      1. Brought ideas posed by Wundt to United States
    2. Focused on describing what behavior is by identifying what elements of conscious experiences combine to form the structure of mental life
      1. Used introspection to monitor and identify the elements
    3. Pros
      1. Established model for study of mental processes
    4. Cons
      1. Introspection could not be used to study animals, children or metal disorders and personality
      2. Observes disagreed on experiences and had no scientific solution
  5. Functionalism
    1. Focused on identifying why and how the mind allows for humans and animals to adapt to their environment
    2. Strongly influenced by Darwinism
      1. Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection
    3. William James
      1. Broadened scope of Psychology to include both human and nonhuman behavior and biological processes.
      2. Wrote Principles of Psychology
        1. Leading psychological text
    4. Pros
      1. Broadened psychology
        1. Encouraged research on emotions and observable behavior
      2. Started psychological testing movement
      3. Expanded influence of psychology into areas in industry
  6. Psycholanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective
    1. Focus on unconscious mental processes and unresolved conflicts within one’s past
      1. Conscious - current thoughts that we are aware of
      2. Pre-conscious - Can be recalled (ex. Memories)
      3. Unconscious - part of mind outside of awarenessexternal image HpXPTZ15cy0HOIcUUn2TjyoKlFQSTNOCGaaNmwDFIMRj9kZ51-RMOgziymJZu9tEs9zMB_4IwNv3gR5lEQ979SKKVY4xoSYAc0GO__w2s0L4zZYwzzw

(My own awesome drawing skills)
    1. Sigmund Freud
      1. Founder of psycholanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
      2. Interested on role the mind played in behavior and the body
      3. Believed issues were caused by conflict between acceptable behavior and unacceptable motive
        1. Early childhood influences, sexual desire and aggressive nature
      4. Developed Psychoanalysis
        1. “Talk therapy”
      5. Criticisms
        1. Too much focus on sex and aggression
        2. Sexist bias
    2. Neo-Freudians
      1. Early followers of Freud who broke away from Ferud and focused more on social motives and relationships
    3. Modern Psychodynamic Approach
      1. Primarily use case study research
      2. Focus on interpreting the meanings that underlie people’s behavior
  1. Behavior Perspective
    1. Emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior
    2. John B. Watson
      1. Founder of behaviorism
      2. Objected to practice of introspection, study of mental processes, and influence of unconscious forces
      3. Criticism: unscientific and too obscure to be studied empirically
    3. Ivan Pavlov
      1. Russian physiologist that formed the concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from observable stimuli and responses
      2. Experiment: taught dog to salivate in response to the sound of a bell
    4. B.F. Skinner
      1. Focused on learning and how behaviors are acquired
      2. Convinced that certain approaches could shape human behavior - Operant learning
        1. Conditioning behavior through punishment and reward
  2. Humanist Perspective
    1. Stressed free-will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking
    2. Emphasize unique ability to make voluntary choices about our own behavior and life
    3. Carl Rogers
      1. All individuals strive naturally to grow, develop, and move toward self-actualization
      2. Believed the bad in individuals is caused by society
    4. Abraham Maslow
      1. Stressed importance of self-actualization
      2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
      3. Believed you are your ideal self
  3. Cognitive Perspective
    1. Emphasis on thought, perception, and information processing
    2. Modern day
      1. study how we gather, encode and store information from our environment using mental processes
    3. Information-processing approach
      1. gather information from the environment and then process it in a series of stages
    4. Piaget
      1. Focused on studies of mental and physical development over time
  4. Neuroscience/Biopsychology Perspective
    1. Emphasizes genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system
    2. Developed tools to study structure and function of nerve cells, roles of various parts of the brain, how genetic and other biological processes contribute to behavior and mental processes
  5. Evolutionary Perspective
    1. Focus on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
    2. Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance an organism’s reproductive success

Example: Consider aggression. An evolutionary psychologist would say that human and nonhuman animals behave aggressively because aggression is a trait that provides a survival or reproductive advantage.
  1. Sociocultural Perspective
    1. Emphasizes social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes
    2. Shown how factors such as ethnicity, religion, occupation, and socioeconomic class all have psychological impact

Mnemonic Device for Seven Major Perspectives
Public = Psychoanalytic/Psycho-dynamic Perspective
Bathrooms = Behavioral Perspective
Have = Humanist Perspective
Certain = Cognitive Perspective
Norms = Neuroscience/Bio-psychology Perspective
Expected = Evolutionary Perspective
Socially = Sociocultural Perspective

  1. Women and Minorities
    1. Mary Calkins
      1. Performed research on memory
      2. First female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
    2. Margaret Floy Washburn
      1. First woman to receive a Ph.D. is psychology
      2. Wrote several books and served as second female president of APA
    3. Francis Cecil Sumner
      1. First African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology from Clark University
      2. Translated over 3000 article
      3. Founded one of the country’s leading leading psychology departments
    4. Kenneth B. Clark
      1. First African American to be elected APA president
      2. documented harmful effects of prejudice
  2. Seven Perspectives and One Theme
    1. Biopsychosocial model
      1. views biological processes, psychological factors, and social forces as interrelated influences
      2. all three forces affect and are affected by one another

Example: Depression. It is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and patterns of thinking, and by socioeconomic status and cultural views.
  1. The Science of Psychology
      1. Research classified a either
        1. Basic Research
          1. Explores theories and advances basic scientific knowledge
          2. Meets psychological goals of describe, explain and predict
        2. or Applied Research
          1. Conducted outside of lab
          2. Meets psychological goal of “change”
          3. Attempts to solve practical problems
    1. The Scientific Method
      1. 6 basic steps
        1. Step 1: Identify questions of interest and review the literature
        2. Step 2: Develop a testable hypothesis
        3. Step 3: Select a research method & collect data
        4. Step 4: Analyze data and accept or reject the hypothesis
        5. Step 5: Publish, replicate, and seek scientific review
        6. Step 6: Build a theory-then the cycle continues
      2. Mnemonic Device for Scientific Method:
        1. Invite Dirty Salmon Along to Paint Benches
    2. Ethical Guidelines: Protecting the rights of others
        1. APS and APA both organizations for ethical standards in research
        2. 3 main areas of ethical concern: human, nonhuman, and clients in therapy
      1. Respecting Rights of Human Participants
        1. Informed Consent
          1. Participants are informed of the nature of the study and factors that might influence their participation
        2. Voluntary participation
          1. Free to decline/withdraw at any given time
        3. Debriefing
          1. Explains reasons the research was conducted and addresses any misconceptions or concerns
          2. Example: The participant was deceived and told that they were participating in a study that measured how well they did on a video game when really the study was measuring their anxiety levels as the video game progressed, the participant would need to be informed of the true nature of the experiment at it’s end.
        4. Confidentiality
          1. All information is private and does not invade the individual rights to privacy
        5. Alternative activities
          1. Must be offered for equal value in case of educational credit
      2. Respecting Rights of Nonhuman Animal Participants
        1. comparative psychology- the study of behavior of different species
      3. Respecting Rights of Psychotherapy Clients
        1. therapists expected to maintain moral and professional manner, and be objective
        2. client confidentiality unless serious threat to others or public safety
  2. Experimental Research: a search for cause and effect
      1. Focuses on identifying cause and effect
      2. experiment manipulated through variables
      3. Key features of an experiment:
        1. Independent Variable- factor changed
        2. Dependent Variable- factor measure, effected by independent variable
        3. Experimental Group- group receiving treatment
        4. Control Group- Group receiving no treatment
      4. Advantages
        1. Precise control over variables
        2. Identification of cause and effect
      5. Disadvantages
        1. Ethical concerns
        2. Practical limitations
        3. Researcher and participant bias
  3. Experimental safeguards
    1. an experiment that protects against any potential errors from the researcher and the participant.
  4. Researcher problems and solutions
    1. Experimenter Bias
      1. When the researcher influences the results in the expected direction which destroys the validity of the results
      2. to prevent it one way is to collect the data through audiotape recordings to record the responses, or another way is to use another person who isn’t involved in the study to gather the data
      3. Double-blind study: is when neither the observer nor the participant knows which group received the experimental treatment.
        1. Example: Adults with stomach issues are given a experimental drug to help reduce discomfort. One group is given the drug, the other the placebo. The observer nor the participants know which group has been assigned which, therefore the observer cannot influence the results and the participant cannot fake results.
      4. Placebos: is a fake treatment used as a control technique, it has been found that the mere act of taking the drug can change the condition of the participant.
        1. placebo is used to ensure that the effect is due to the drug and not to the placebo effect.
        2. Example: A group of young kids all claim to have a headache. Half are given tylenol and the other half are given a placebo. The children do not know which were given the tylenol and which were given the placebo. Some of the children who take the placebo may report relief from their headache simply because they believe the pill they were given was tylenol.
    2. Ethnocentrism
      1. is assuming that behaviors are typical in our culture are typical in all cultures
        1. ethno refers to ethnicity and centrism comes from center.
      2. to avoid this problem researchers use cross-culture sampling by having two different researchers from different cultures run the experiment two times once in their culture and once in their own culture.

  1. Participant Problems and Solutionsexternal image image?id=s-UQAWqFeOOnxTPvV9ILDdw&w=402&h=256&rev=369&ac=1(Huffman)
    1. Sample Bias
      1. a sample bias happens when the group of participants are not representative of the larger population.
      2. it is extremely important that the sample represent the larger population and to safe guard against any bias psychologist use random/representative sampling and random assignment.
      3. Random Assignment is used as a chance method to assign participants to experimental or control conditions.
      4. random assignment is used to minimize an unbiased sample.
      5. Participant Bias is when the certain conditions influence the participant’s behavior or mental process.
      6. one way to prevent this is by offering anonymous participation and other guarantees for privacy and confidentiality so the participant will not try to overly please or deliberately mislead the experimenter.
      7. the most effective way to prevent participant bias is deception, which most consider to be unethical.
      8. Misattribution of Arousal The tendency to mislabel our feelings of fear arousal as feelings of romantic arousal.
        1. Example: Depending on the situation, we apply a different label to our arousal: Large bear = fear, Hot member of the opposite sex = love, Final exam = anxiety
  2. Descriptive Research: naturalistic observation, surveys, and case studies
    1. Descriptive research is the second major type of research, is focused on observing and recording behavior with out producing casual explanations.
    2. Meets descriptive goal of psychology
    3. Naturalistic Observation
      1. the purpose of naturalistic observation is to observe and record the behavior of the participant in there natural state or habitat
          1. watching participants behind a one way mirror
      2. Example: Jane Goodall studied chimpanzees in the jungle.
      3. the main advantage of this is they can obtain data about a truly natural behavior versus behavior created
      4. Overt study- not secret
      5. Covert study- secret
    4. Archival
      1. Study of already existing documents
      2. Used to predict and analyze correlations between information
    5. Surveys
      1. surveys are polls to measure a wide variety of psychological behaviors and attitudes
        1. they ask specific questions and cannot deviate from those questions
      2. one key advantage is that they can gather data from a much larger sample of people.
      3. one disadvantage is that not all participants are honest.
    6. Interviews
      1. Same general idea as surveys
      2. Allow for asking of follow-up questions
    7. Case Studies
      1. Case study is an in-depth study of a single research participant.
      2. Focus is on observing the participant
    8. Advantages:
      1. Minimizes artificiality
      2. Allows description of behavior and mental processes as they occur
    9. Disadvantages:
      1. No control over variables
      2. Researcher and participant bias
      3. Cannot explain cause and effect
  3. Correlational Research
    1. Correlational research- a scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find the relationships between them
      1. No independent and dependent variable
    2. Correlation coefficient- a number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables.
      1. There are three possible relationships for any two variables: positive,
      2. negative, and none (correlation coefficient is delineated by the letter “r”)
      3. A positive relationship exists when the two variables vary in the same direction (Perfect positive correlation coefficient = +1)
        1. Example: external image gLWbcqxtbidTjsaJZnHFdBrBek-7sBb97N8jtCsUSEVpfTiso6TnnqAVTdnQ2xVBEoj3R9_KtXjwA9KvM5eM5MwcJr1Lrp7k-NnCsBxLBt06in3btb8
      4. A negative relationship occurs when the two variables vary in opposite directions (Perfect negative correlation coefficient = -1)
        1. Example: external image u5QsFAX68sbFZlktI5zDHg3l9WJ_HHTpHdPDqOGA2Y4mmzYWFx7z1C8WcnKgQpXua21m_AGf8N7j5WTUhoLd3H6JKq9tRCQ6E8ir_sw2wwALTA7z5SU
      5. There is no relationship (correlation coefficient = 0) when the two variables vary totally independently of one another
        1. Example: There is no correlation between how ugly a person is and the number of times they traveled to Canada
      6. Correlation coefficients can vary from +1.0 to -1.0
    3. Advantages:
      1. Clarification of relationships between variables
      2. Allows for prediction
    4. Issues: Correlation does not imply causation- it may tell allow us to predict how one variable relates to another, but it does not tell us if a cause-effect relationship exists between the two variables
      1. Example: Just because there is a high correlation between brown hair and high test scores, does not mean brown hair causes high test scores.
  4. Biological Research
    1. Biological research- scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system
    2. Identifies causation, description and prediction
      1. Brain dissection: careful cutting and study of a cadaver brain to reveal structural details
        1. Example: Dissecting the brains of AIDS victims to show identifiable changes in various parts of the brain
      2. Ablation/ lesions: surgically removing parts if the brain, or destroying specific areas of the brain, followed by observation for changes in behavior or mental processes
        1. Example: Lesioning a cat’s cerebellum to see how it affects the way the cat walks
      3. Clinical observations/ case studies: observing and recording changes in personality, behavior, or sensory capacity associated with brain disease or injuries
        1. Example: studying victims of multiple concussions from football-related accidents over the course of 5 years
      4. Electrical recordings: brain activity is recorded to produce an electroencephalogram (EEG) using electrodes attached to a person’s or animal’s skin or scalp
      5. Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): a weak electric current stimulates specific areas of the brain using an electrode
      6. CT scan: computer creates cross-sectional X-rays of the brain
      7. PET scan: radioactive form of glucose is injected into the bloodstream, the scanner then records the amount of glucose used in particularly active areas of the brain and produces computer-constructed picture of the brain
      8. fMRI scan: a new, faster version of the MRI- detects blood flow by picking up magnetic signals from the blood that has given up its oxygen to activate brain cells
      9. MRI scan: a high-frequency magnetic field is passed through the brain by means of electromagnetics
        1. Example:external image CuJNGVZPTshgQRgWWaIjXb32aKWFP-oVr9cjxGOyfb_EAYJUJW3I06Dkg8aTfjrtDLuCGxmz72AqtpxpQy_9HqWQfu7cFzuk1rpx60_Slz3vYBVGy8w(May)
Citation added:
Huffman, Karen. "Introduction and Research Methods." Psychology in Action. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2007. Print.

May, Rex. "He Seems Cranky, but His Heart Is in the Right Place -- We Gave Him an MRI to Be Sure." Cartoon. Cartoon Stock. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview.asp?catref=rman8532>.

"P Charts." Web log post. Mba640. Creative Commons Attribution, 6 Nov. 2010. Web. 16 Feb.

2011. http://mba640.wikispaces.com/.

Important People: Chapter 1
  • Edward Titchener- He was a mental chemist. Sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind. Brought Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas to the United States. Established a psychological laboratory at Cornell University. Wundt and Titcheners’ approach later became known as structuralism.
  • William James- An American scholar who was a leading force in the functionalist school. He broadened psychology to include nonhuman animal behavior, various biological processes, and behaviors. He wrote a book called Principles of Psychology (1890). His book became the leading psychological text.
  • Carl Jung- A neo-Freudian (earlier follower of Freud) and a Swiss psychiatrist. He was one of the most ardent followers who later broke away from his theories. He was a prominent figure in the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective.
  • Sigmund Freud- Austrian physician who developed psychoanalysis aka “talks thearapy.” He emphasised sexual and aggressive impulses as drives to many behaviours. He also theorized much about sexual relationships between parents and children during a time sex was rarely talked about. He believed conflicts and motives that drive behaviour are hidden in the unconscious (outside our awareness). His studies paved the way for the modern psychodynamic approach.
  • Karen Horney- A neo-Freudian (follower of Freud) who eventually broke away from Freud’s theories mainly because she wanted to put less emphasis on sex and aggression and more on motives and relationships. She studied and devoleped theories on neurosis and personality.
  • Wilhem Wundt- Known as the “father of psychology” and credited with the “birth of psychology.” He established first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany and wrote Principles of Psychosocial Psychology. He mainly studied conscious experience through introspection (monitoring and reporting the contents of consciousness.)
  • Carl Rogers- Humanist that believed the most important component of personality was self. The self concept is the term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior. Rogers said there is an intimate connection among mental health, congruence, and self-esteem. Rogers said that to help a child develop to fullest potential, adults need to create an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard, which is complete love and acceptance.
  • B.F. Skinner- Behaviorist that extended Thorndike’s law of effect to more complex behaviors. The Skinner box was used to train animals to push a lever to receive a food pellet, and the number of responses made by the rat was recorded, demonstrating operant conditioning principles. He also proposed that reinforcement and punishment are always defined after the fact. Skinner believed that when examining behavior, only observable, external, or environmental stimuli should be considered.
  • Erik Erikson- Neo-Freudian. An ardent follower of Freud who broke away because he wanted less emphasis on sexual and aggressive impulses and more emphasis on social development. Revised Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and extended it across the life span in his book Childhood and Society. Developed Ego Psychology.
  • John Watson- Behaviorist who published an article titled Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Advocated that stimuli and responses that can be observed should be the focus of psychology as opposed to mental processes. Opened the school of behaviorism.
  • Alfred Adler- Neo-Freudian. Ardent follower of Freud who broke away in order to focus less on sexual and aggressive impulses and more on power dynamics. Founded an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory. Developed the inferiority complex which focuses on self-esteem and it’s impacts on human health.
  • Abraham Maslow- One of two central figures to the development of humanism. He developed a hierarchy of needs to explain his theory of self-actualization, it was a visual aid that depicted a pyramid of human needs with our basic needs at the bottom and our self-actualized needs at the top.
  • Ivan Pavlov- A behaviorist. He was a Russian physiologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion. He accidentally discovered classical conditioning when doing his work on salivation because he trained dogs to salivate every time he rang a bell. He would ring a bell before he fed the dogs everyday and he noticed that they came to associate the two. Every time he rang the bell, the dogs began to salivate.
  • Jean Piaget- A Swiss developmental psychologist. He was a prominent figure in cognitive perspective. He placed great importance on the education of children.

Interesting Facts- Chapter 1

Clever Hans Effect: “Does your dog REALLY understand a verbal cue?”

Psuedopsychology: Astrology: The History of Horoscopes
Both the Chinese and the Greeks had their own forms of horoscopes early on. The Greeks believed strongly in consulting the stars and the alignment of the planets for guidance, as they believed life to be predetermined and predicted by the heavenly bodies. Chinese horoscopes are different from Greek horoscopes in that animals are used to identify with the different star and planet alignments.
"History of Horoscopes." Daily Horoscopes. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://www.daily-horoscopes.org/>.

Misattribution of Arousal:
Experimenters Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron found that men mistakenly attribute some of their arousal from fear to their attraction to a female. They found this by asking an attractive male and female participant (confederate) to stop and ask members of the opposite sex to fill out a questionnaire while the unsuspecting people were crossing either a sturdy or a scarily unstable bridge. In this experiment many of the men asked on the fear-arousing bridge found a much higher sexual attraction to the female researcher. This revealed that men in dangerous situations can mistake their arousal from fear as arousal from the woman.

Behavior Perspective: Gender Role Conformity
This research project tests conformity. The results showed that 27 out of 35 people followed the signs on the door.

Gender Behavior
Women are twice more talkative than men! It has been estimated that on average, men speak 12,500 words and women speak about 25,500 words in a day, but based on the total number of people tested since IQ tests were devised, women have a slightly higher average IQ than men.

"10 Interesting Facts about Gender Psychology." Tasty Human. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://www.tastyhuman.com/10-interesting-facts-about-gender-psychology/>.