Chapter 10: Vocabulary

1. Moral Development (362) - moral development may be prewired and evoultionarily based, but also may be influenced by psychological and social factors 2. biopsychosocial model (16) - unifying theme of modern psychology that considers biological, psychological and social processes
3. preconventional level (364) - Kohlberg’s first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment, and exchange of favors
4. Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation - morality is what you can get away with5. Stage 2: Instrumental-Exchange Orientation - obey rules to obtain rewards or favors
6. conventional level (364) - Kohlberg’s second level of moral development, where moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society
7. Stage 3: Good-Child Orientation - obey rules to get approval8. Stage 4: Law-and-Order Orientation - obey laws because they maintain the social order
9. postconvential level (364) - Kohlberg’s highest level of moral development, in which individuals develop personal standards for right and wrong, and define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
10. Stage 5: Social-Contract Orientation - moral reasoning reflects belief in democratically accepted laws 11. Stage 6: Universal-Ethics Orientations - Moral reasoning reflects individual conscience
12. Temperament Theory (367) - (Thomas & Chess) research found that approximately 65% of the babies observed in the study could be reliably separated into three categories:
  • easy: happy most of the time, relaxed and agreeable, and adjusted easily to new situations, 40%
  • difficult: moody, easily frustrated, tense, and overreactive, 10%
  • slow-to-warm-up: showed mild responses, were somewhat shy and withdrawn, needed time to adjust to new experiences or people, 15%
13. temperament (367) - an individual’s innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional respnse 14. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (Psychosocial Stages) (368) - Erikson’s theory that individuals pass through eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved
15. Trust v. Mistrust (369) - (birth to approximately 12 months) significant relationship with mother, virtues include hope and faith, maladaptations include sensory distortions and withdrawal 16. Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (369) - (ages 1 to 3) significant relationship with parents virtues include will and determination, maladaptations include impulsiveness and compulsiveness 17. Initiative v. Guilt (369) - (ages 3 to 6) significant relationship with family, virtues include purpose and courage, maladaptations include ruthfulness and inhibition 18. Industry v. Inferiority (369) - (ages 6 through 12) significant relationship with neighborhood and school, virtues include competence, maladaptations include inferiority 19. Identity v. Role Confusion (369) - (ages 12 to 20) significant relationship with peer groups and role models, virtues include fidelity and loyalty, maladaptations include fanaticism
20. Intimacy v. Isolation (369) - (ages 20 to 30) significant relationship with partner and friends, virtues include love, maladaptations include promiscuity 21. Gernativity v. Stagnation (369) - (middle age- ages 30 to 65) significant relationship with household and workmates, virtues include care, maladaptations include overextenstion and rejectivity
22. Ego integrity v. Despair (369) - (final years of life) significant relationship with mankind, virtues include wisdom, maladaptations include despair 23. identity crisis (370) - Erikson’s term for an adolescent’s search for self, which requires intense self-reflection and questioning
24. adulthood (372) - time period in which people develop good marital relationships, cope with the challenges of family, and find rewarding work and retirement 25. Family Violence (causes and solutions) (374) - caused by marital conflict, substance abuse, mental disorders, economic stress, etc.; may be solved with primary programs for ‘vulnerable families’ and secondary programs to rehabilitate families after abuse has occurred, along with social services such as AMAC (Adults Molested as Children) 26. Teen Pregnancy/Parenthood (375) - teen pregnancy affects life development, possibly causing health risks for both parties, decreased chances of marital success, and lower educational achievement 27. Activity Theory (379) - successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life 28. Disengagement Theory (379) - successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society 29. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (379) - a natural decline in social contact occurs as older adults become more selective with their time
30. Ageism (379) - prejudice or discrimination based on physical age
31. Grief/grieving (381) - a natural and painful reaction to a loss, consists of four major stages: numbness, yearning, disorganization and despair, resolution 32. Three basic concepts of understanding death (382) - attitudes toward death and dying vary with age, but are understood in three ways:
  • permanence: once a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life
  • universality: all living things eventually die
  • nonfunctionality: all living functions, including though, movement, and vital signs, end at death
33. The Death Experience (383) - the final task in development; it is a natural part of the life cycle that is often misconceived as a medical failure
34. Kubler-Ross’s Theory (383) - people go through five sequential stages when facing death
  • denial: ‘This can’t be true; its a mistake!’
  • anger: ‘Why me? It isn’t fair!’
  • bargaining: ‘God, if you let me live, I’ll dedicate my life to you!’
  • depression: ‘I’m losing everyone and everything I hold dear.’
  • acceptance: ‘I know that death is inevitable and my time is near.’
35. thanatology (383) - the study of death and dying; the term comes from thanatos, the Greek name for a mythical personification of death, and was borrowed by Feud to represent the death instinct

Chapter 10: Outline Rough Draft

Moral Development
-moral development is said to possibly be genetically based-biology is only one factor that contributes to the biopsychosocial model that explains moralthoughts, feelings, and actions that change over the life span
  • Kohlberg’s Research: What is Right?
-The Heinz dilemma external image aK73q0uQ2-VCuqnMFZ_mZbGJedgN4tE71mPRqUHhUyrvIOHYjmKdOA-_gglreZDWbLGr88Ijs2RkfWmleji0Y03wFbpBrxeYQ0PersU_mrwozVCVP9s (Scale of Justice, Wikipedia)
-Kohlberg’s stages of cognitive development are present in all cultures and are gone through by everyone in a predictable way-Kohlberg’s stages are broken up in three levels and six stages
      • Preconventional level - (from birth to adolescence) moral judgement is self-centered while moral understanding is focused on rewards, punishments, and exchange of favors
-Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation -- importance in self-interest with difficulty in acknowledging differing points of view
-Stage 2: instrumental-exchange orientation -- an awareness of others’ perspectives is acknowledged, but morality is based on an exchange of favors
      • Conventional Level - (from adolescence and young adulthood) development of moral reasoning and moral judgement is motivated by the compliance to rules and norms
-Stage 3: good-child orientation -- need to gain approval through good deeds
-Stage 4: law-and-order orientation -- ‘big picture’ perspective is taken into account (social norms/laws) this is the highest level reached by most people
      • Postconventional level - (adulthood) build an understanding of personal ideas of what is right and wrong while abstract principles are used to define morality
-Stage 5: social-contract orientation -- development of appreciation for societal laws when the laws are consistent with the person’s moral views
-Stage 6: universal-ethics orientation -- universal ethics are used to determine righteousness (self actualization)
  • Assessing Kohlberg’s Theory (Criticisms): 3 major areas
    • Moral reasoning vs. behavior -- higher level moral development is positively correlated to high levels of moral behavior
    • Cultural differences -- while the preconventional level of development is generally followed across different cultures, as children reach the conventional level, cultural factors begin to influence moral development
    • Possible gender bias -- Kohlberg’s theory is said to focus on values that are more often held by men, resulting in a lower level of moral development reached by women in his study

Personality Development
  • Thomas and Chess’s Temperament Theory: Biology and Personality Development
- Temperament: An individual’s natural and genetic behavior and emotional response similar to personality and characteristic.
  • Thomas and Chess believed that approximately 65% of children are able to be separated into three different categories:
  1. Easy Children: Infants that fit into this category are happy most of the time and are very relaxed, agreeable, and easy to adjust to new situations. Approximately 40% of children are considered ‘easy’.
  2. Difficult Children: Approximately 10% of children, infants in this category are tense, moody, easily frustrated, and they also overreact.
  3. Slow-to-warm-up Children: Approximately 15%, these children are the most shy. They take time to warm up to, show mild responses, and are withdrawn.

  • Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: The Eight Stages of Life
    • Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust
-Age: 0-1
-Significant Relationships: Mother
-Virtues: hope and faith -Maladaptations: withdrawal
    • Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
-Age: 2-3
-Significant Relationships: Parents -Virtues: Will, determination -Maladaptations: Impulsive and compulsive
    • Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
-Age: 3-6

-Significant Relationships: Family
-Virtues: Purpose, courage -Maladaptations: Ruthlessness and inhibition
    • Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority

-Significant Relationships: Neighborhood and school -Virtues: Competitiveness -Maladaptations: Inferiority complex
    • Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion
-Significant Relationships: Peer groups and role models
-Virtues: Fidelity and loyalty
-Maladaptations: Fanaticism -Identity crisis -- the term used to describe the search for self in adolescents which calls for intense self-reflection and questioning.
    • Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
-Age: 20
-Significant Relationships: Partner and friends -Virtues: Love -Maladaptations: Promisquity

    • Stages 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
-Age: 20-50

-Significant Relationship: Household and workmates -Virtues: Care -Maladaptations: Overextension and rejectivity
    • Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair

-Age: 50+
-Significant Relationship: Mankind or “my kind” -Virtues: Wisdom -Maladaptions: Dispair

Video to help you remember!

  • Myths of Development: Correcting Popular Misconceptions
    • Many, including psychologists, believed that adolescence was a time of storm and stress, filled with psychological strain and being emotionally unstable. However, recent studies have shown that adolescence is no different than any other life transition. They have found that it is as dramatic as any typical change in ones life.
    • The midlife crisis is a popular belief that when a woman is 35 and a man is 40, he or she will enter in a crisis full of distress and turbulence. However, although it is true that one reexamines their life when middle aged, research presents that drastic changes in personality during this stage is highly unlikely and rare.
    • An empty nest syndrome is believed to be experienced by parents when the last child leaves home. This states that a one or both parents feels depression and ‘emptiness’ because of their departed son or daughter. However, research shows that this syndrome is merely an exaggeration of those who feel pain and despair at this time to avoid those who receive positive reactions.

Meeting the Challenges of Adulthood

  • Marriage: Overcoming Unrealistic Expectations
-one-half of marriages in the United States end in divorce

-divorced spouses must accomplish these three tasks for a “healthy” divorce: let go, develop new social ties, and redefine parental roles

-Children can be affected by their parents’ divorce depending on their individual attributes, qualities of the custodial family, continued involvement, and resources/support systems

-realistic expectations are important for a healthy marriage

    • based upon...recognizing personal biases and valuing truth above self-interest
    • traits of long-term, healthy marriages: established love maps, shared power/mutual support, conflict management, similarity, supportive social environment, and positive emphasis

  • Families: Their Effect on Development
    • Family Violence
-difficult to measure maltreatment and abuse because it occurs in private
-victims are hesitant to report it because they often feel shame, powerlessness, or fear -millions of cases are reported annually -those who abuse tend to lack impulse control, especially paired with stress -Treatment
      • Primary programs: identify vulnerable families and prevent abuse by teaching stress management and impulse control skills
      • Secondary programs: rehabilitate families after abuse has occurred
    • Teen Pregnancy and Parenthood
-percentage of unwed teen births has increased
-single-parent families headed by a woman are at risk of poverty -poses a health risk for mother and child -Comprehensive education and health-oriented services (prevention): can provide medical care, contraceptive services, social services, and parenting education
external image sRRwxQ_Uu-UVi6MgTtlfn8fNmrVAeYZvSP7_A_clpgL2oiOsoyFUPV84aeYStKBRaq7HZ3SeR_HBzZrqLGe9uUCinCWREHGmfXhN4rvocLRJihI56H8
(The Cast of The Brady Bunch) The ideal form of parenting.
  • Work and Retirement: How They Affect Us
-work defines our health, friendships, where we live, and our leisure activities
-attempt to combine family and work roles and “living the good life” -Personality-job fit theory- a match between our individual personality and our career choice is a major factor in determining job satisfaction
    • Enjoying Retirement
-life-satisfaction after retirement related to good health, control over one’s life, social support, and participation in community and social activities
-Activity theory: successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life -Disengagement theory: successful aging characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society-Socioemotional selectivity theory: a natural decline in social contact occurs as older adults become more selective with their time-Ageism: discrimination based upon old age (viewed as mentally slow and socially useless)
Grief and Death
  • Grief: Lessons in Survival
-feelings of desolation, loneliness, and heartache, accompanied by painful memories in reaction to loss, disaster, or misfortune
-Four Stages of Grief:
1. Numbness: dazed, feeling little emotion other than numbness or emptiness; may be in denial of death 2. Yearning: intense longing for the loved one, and pangs of guilt, anger, and resentment ex) A grieving person may “see” the deceased love one, have vivid dreams of the deceased person, or feel the “presence” of dead person 3. Disorganization/despair: life seems to lose its meaning; the mourner feels lost, apathetic, and submissive 4.Resolution/reorganization: the mourner begins to accept the loss both intellectually and emotionally as well as build a new self-identity -Techniques to help cope with losses and grief: 1. Recognize the loss and allow yourself to grieve: avoid unnecessary stress, getting plenty of rest, and giving yourself permission to enjoy life 2. Set up a daily activity schedule: force yourself to fill your time with useful activities3. Seek help: support from friends and family as well as professional counseling if necessary

  • Attitudes Toward Death and Dying: Cultural Age Variations
- attitudes toward death and dying vary with age
- Three Basic Concepts of Death (as adults understand death):
1. Permanence: once a living thing dies, it cannot be brought back to life2. Universality: all living things eventually die3. Nonfunctionality: all living function, including thought, movement, and vital signs, end at death
  • The Death Experience: Our Final Developmental Task
- ageism: avoiding thoughts and discussion of death and associating aging with death
- the better we understand death, and the more wisely we approach it, the more fully we can live until it comes - based on interviews with patients, Kübler-Ross proposed that most people go through five sequential stages when facing death- Kübler-Ross’s Five Sequential Stages:
1. Denial: refusing to acknowledge the terminal conditionex) “This can’t be true! It must be a mistake!”
2. Anger: experiencing anger towards external forcesex) “Why me? It isn’t fair!”
3. Bargaining: trying to figure out another way and avoid deathex) “God, if you let me live, I’ll dedicate my life to you!”
4. Depression: self-pity, hopelessnessex) “I’m losing everyone and everything I hold dear” 5. Acceptance: coming to terms with own life and recognizing that death is inevitableex) “I know that death is inevitable and my time is near”
Figure 3external image z6i2Sry1gmZPSqFMc4znFN9Ht-G96vHJfunKPvpY4mEGDLX08540tjffMX9nJ5ZtKWFPl2SHMn2IsS4zIvldmWzfP2E3Tk_JWZiUDHuK29zy_FwbcmY
(Five Stages of Grief, Liu)
    • Evaluating Kubler-Ross’s Theory
-critics stress that each person’s death is a unique experience and emotions and reactions depend on the individual’s personality, life
situation, age, etc.- popularization of this stage theory will cause further avoidance and stereotyping of the dying- spurred research in thanatology, which led to the hospice movement, allowing the dying to be helped with dignity
- Thanatology: the study of death and dying

15 Devices To Help Remember Difficult Terms: 1.Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, POIEGLSU (po-ee-gul-sue):
Punishment-Obedience, Instrumental-Exchange, Law-and-Order, Social-Contract, Universal-Ethics.2. Stage 1--Kohlberg: Little Zoe says that her mom really wants a puppy for Kwanzaa, but she’s the one that really wants the puppy. When she gets the puppy, she forgets to feed it and it dies and she explains to her mom that one dead puppy is better than 73 dead puppies.
3. Stage 2--Kohlberg: Baby Aly really wants a lock of little Zoe’s hair, but Zoe isn’t going to give it up unless she gets four nickles, a used toothpick and full access to Aly’s pet unicorn.
4. Stage 3--Kohlberg: Baby Aly gives KT her pet unicorn because she knows that KT will invite her to a hoppin’ party if she does so.
5. Stage 4--Kohlberg: Since last Kwanzaa, Zoe has matured and now wants a gold fish which she places in a 30 gallon aquarium to allow it to grow to its fullest size. Thankfully, the gold fish lives, unlike the puppy, because Zoe realizes that killing/allowing animals to die is not socially acceptable.
6. Stage 5--Kohlberg: Even though KT belongs to a very strict faith/cult, she does not condemn Zoe from practicing her own religious beliefs because she understands the importance of freedom of religion.
7. Stage 6--Kohlberg: KT does not use any animal or plant products because she believes that all living creatures have the capacity to reason, have a soul, and can feel pain.
8. Denial: JNa finds out that Morgan Freeman has Ebola, in her wild sadness and confusion, she refuses to believe that it is true. 9.Anger: JNa acts out with her friends after the death of Morgan Freeman by stepping on their toes and spitting at them.
10. Bargaining: JNa turns to Allah in prayer and asks for Morgan Freeman’s soul to take over her body in return for her daily sacrifice of a half-man-half-goat.
11. Depression: JNa will not come out of her closet for two weeks and will not stop adding to her shrine of Morgan Freeman.
12. Acceptance: JNa realizes that Morgan Freeman is a lowly mortal and could not have lived forever because JNa has not yet discovered the “fountain of youth.” 13. Activity theory: After JNa retires from her management position, she joins a fish club and attends weekly protests against the mistreatment of goldfish and other tropical pet fish. 14.Socioemotional selectivity theory: JNa, now 349 years old, decides that she is much too upscale in her wise age so she feng shui’s her dwelling place into a cave-like structure and becomes a hermit, never to be seen again.
15.Ageism: JNa will not hire her grandmother at the pet store that she manages because she thinks that her grandmother is mentally slow because she is 87.
Chapter 10: Important People

Lawrence Kohlberg:

  • Research: Kohlberg experimented with moral development and theorized that they were universal and predictably gone through by everyone. He categorized them first by generalized levels being the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels, with two sub-orientations for each, resulting in a total of six stages. These stages the progressive moral development from birth to late adulthood.
  • Criticisms: Three main criticisms follow Kohlberg’s research: moral reasoning versus behavior, cultural differences, and possible gender bias. With moral reasoning versus behavior, studies have shown a positive correlation between higher levels of moral behavior and subsequently, higher levels of reasoning. With criticism of cultural differences, research proves that children from various cultures all conform to the theories of Kohlberg. However, cultural differences present an influence in morality as well. For the criticism of a possible gender bias, studies have shown that woman tend to present a lower level of moral reasoning than men due to Kohlberg emphasizing characteristics and values held by men and ignoring those held by women.
Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess:
  • Research: Thomas and Chess explored temperament. Their research showed that 65 percent of babies could be categorized into three temperaments: easy children, difficult children, and slow-to-warm-up children. More children were labeled easy children than the other two categories.
  • Criticisms: Because there are only three categories of temperament, Thomas and Chess’s observations are too generalized. Although subsequent studies showed these temperaments tend to be consistent even throughout adulthood, there is no account for the role of environment on temperament.
Erik Erikson:
  • Research: Erik Erikson developed eight psychosocial stages of social development, each involving a crisis in need of resolution. The names reflect the specific crisis at each stage and generally correspond to an age range. He believed that if someone were to overcome each crisis, that person would devolop more healthily.
  • Criticisms: One major issue with this theory is that these stages have difficult testability. A second issue is that these stages do not cross all cultures; for example individualistic and collectivistic cultures will vary based upon their crises and priorities.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross:
  • Research: Kubler-Ross proposed that most people undergo five stages when facing death. These stages consist of denial of the situation or condition, anger over the situation, bargaining with themselves, others or God, depression that they are in that specific situation, and finally acceptance of the reality of what is to come.
  • Criticisms: Critics observe that each person who goes through the grieving process has a different experience from the other. Their emotions and reactions to the situation are be based on lifestyle, economic status, age, and any other extenuating circumstances.

Chapter 10: Interesting Facts

1. Kohlberg: Moral Development Video
2. Morality This is an explanation of an experiment done on the attribution of morality involving forty undergraduate students and their determination of stimulus person’s behaviors being moral or immoral.
3. Erikson: 8 Stages Video
4. Resiliency: “A Question of Resiliency,” NY Times (an article about children displaying resiliency to childhood abuse)
Despite being abused as young children and against the odds of their socio-economic standing, these two young girls La'Tanya and Tichelle are successful high school graduates and have careers as a nurse and computer operator, respectively. 5. Kubler-Ross: Death and Grieving