Chapter 12
Chapter 12 Vocab
1. Motivation- set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal.
2. Emotion- a subjective feeling, that include arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations) and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running)
3. Instincts- fixed response patterns that are unlearned and found in almost all members of a species.
4. Drive-Reduction theory- motivation begins with a psychological need (lack or deficiency) that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need; once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases.
5. Homeostasis- a body’s tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant internal temperature.
6. Arousal theory- organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal.
7. Incentive theory- motivation results from external stimuli that “pull” the organism in certain directions
8. Hierarchy of needs- Maslow’s theory that some motives must be met before going on the higher needs
9. Anorexia nervosa- severe loss of weight resulting from self- imposed starvation and an obsessive fear of obesity.
10. Bulimia nervosa- consuming large quantities of food (bingeing) followed by vomiting, extreme exercise, and/or laxative use (purging)
11. Achievement motivation- desire to excel, especially in competition with others.
12. Amygdala- area of the brain’s limbic system involved in emotional responses.
13. James-Lange theory- emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression; in this view, each emotion is physiologically distinct.
14. Cannon-Bard theory- arousal, behavior and emotions occur simultaneously; in this view all emotions are physiologically similar.
15. Facial-Feedback theory- movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions.
16. Schatner’s two-factor theory- emotions result from physical arousal and cognitive labeling (or interpretation) of that arousal based on external cues.
17. Intrinsic motivation- motivation resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity.
18. Extrinsic motivation- motivation based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment.
19. Polygraph- instrument that measures heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and skin conductivity to detect emotional arousal, which in turn supposedly reflects lying versus truthfulness.
20. Emotional intelligence- Goleman’s term for the ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize with others and maintain satisfying relationships.
21. Plutchik’s Emotional Wheel- Created by Robert Plutchik, it suggests that primary emotions, such as fear, acceptance, and joy are like colors on a coloring wheel that combine to form secondary emotions such as love, submission, awe, and optimism.
22. Type A & B Personalities - Behavior characteristics including intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook (Type A). Behavior characteristics consistent with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude (Type B).
23. General Adaption Syndrome- Selye’s three- phase (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) reaction to severe stress
24. Settling Point-combines set point and environment; if you change your habits your settling point will change
25. Attributions- how we interpret or think about our own and others’ actions.
26. Extraneous variables- factors that contribute irrelevant data and confuse results.
27. Lateral Hypothalamus- deals with hunger. Stimulating this needs, grows a desire for one to eat. Damage to this will cause a person to reduce their intake.
28. Behavioral Component- how emotions are expressed. (emotional expression is a powerful form of communication)
29. Cognitive psychosocial theory- emphasizes attributions and expectations
30. Ventromedial Hypothalamus- Makes a person stop eating it due to hunger needs being satisfied. If this is every destroyed we will keep eating, and eating.
31. Attributions- how we interpret or think about our own and other's actions. (deals with motivation)32. Expectancies- what you anticipate about something. (motivation)33. prioritizes- in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Maslow places the surivival needs at the bottom and the self-actualization needs at the top, thus prioritizing his needs. 34. Self-actualization- is the need to find self-fullfillment and realize one's potential. (Maslow- top of pyramid)35. Physiological needs- hunger, thirst, and maintenance of homeostasis. (bottom of pyramid- Maslow)36. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- a test that has participants create a story about a picture, which then offers the researcher to score them on their responses for different motivational themes, including achievement.37. Yerkes-Dodson law- The level of efficiency coincides with the level of arousal forming a upside down "U" shape.38. Emotional Display Rules- Norms that tell people whether, which, how, and when emotions should be displayed39. Evolutionary Theory of Emotion- emotions are innate responses to stimuli. Thought and learning of emotion is down played and credited to biological responses due to evolution.40. Culturally Universal Emotions- Basic emotions such as happiness (smiling) and sadness ect. are often found across many cultures. CHAPTER 12: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Chapter 12 Outline
I. Motivation and Emotion
Research in motivation and emotion tries to answer questions such as “why” and “what” to explain emotional states like happiness and sadness.
Motivation directs behavior whereas emotion is the “feeling” response.
Motivation and emotion come from the Latin word movere which means “to move”.
II. Theories and Concepts of Motivation
Six major theories of motivation falling into three general categories: biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial.
Biological Theories: Looking for Internal “Whys” of Behavior
1. Instinct: Motivation comes from unlearned behaviors and those that are universal in a species. (ex: Nurturing of the young is an instinctual behavior)
■ William McDougall (1908) => said that humans had many instincts
■ Sociobiology has revived the case for instincts when it was viewed as fixed response patterns which are unlearned and found in the majority of species.
2. Drive-Reduction: Motivation is driven by a psychological need (a lack) that leans toward a behavior that will satisfy the original need. (ex: hunger; thirst; etc.)
● Largely based on the biological concept of homeostasis which is the body’s stability of its internal environment.
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1. Arousal: Organisms are motivated to reach and maintain a desirable level of arousal.
● Behavior efficiency increases as we move from deep sleep to increased alertness yet once the max level is passed then performance declines.
Psychosocial Theories:

4. Incentive: Motivation results from environmental stimuli that “pull” the

organism in certain directions.
5. Cognitive: Motivation is affected by how we think about our own or others’
actions.
● Motivation is affected by attributions and expectancies.
Biopsychosocial Theory:
6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Lower motives (such as safety needs) must
be done before going to higher needs (such as self-esteem).
The concept of self-actualization is important to the study of motivation.

III. Motivation and Behavior Untitled3.png
The Stomach
● In an experiment conducted by Walter B. Cannon and A.L. Washburn in which they studied hunger, it was reported that stomach movement caused the sensation of hunger.
● Sensory input from the stomach is not essential for feeling hungry.
Biochemistry
● The brain and other parts of the body produce numerous neurotransmitters, hormones, enzymes, and other chemicals that affect behavior.
● It’s unlikely that any one chemical controls our hunger and eating.
● Other internal factors, such as thermo genesis (the heat generated in response to food ingestion), also play a roll.
The Brain
● Hypothalamus helps regulate eating, drinking, and body temperature
● The lateral hypothalamus (VH) stimulates eating
● Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) creates feelings of satiation and signaled the animal to stop eating.
● When the VMH is destroyed it causes one to become obese.
● When the VH is destroyed one will starve to death if you are not force-fed.
● Hunger and eating are influenced by numerous neural circuits that run throughout the brain.

Psychosocial Factors
The sight of food and other stimulus cues act as external triggers to hunger and eating.
It also depends on your cultural conditioning.
Biopsychosocial forces play a role in three of our most serious eating disorders; obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa.
Obesity
Over half of all adults in the United States meet the current criterion for clinical obesity.
Adopted children tend to represent their biological parents weight instead of their adopted parents weight.
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
Anorexia: self starvation and extreme weight loss
Bulimia: intense, recurring episodes of binge eating followed by purging through vomiting or taking laxatives.
These disorders are found in all socioeconomic levels.
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese, a disturbed body image, then need for control, and the use of dangerous measures to lose weight.
Some people who are anorexic not only stop eating but do extreme exercising.
The extreme malnutrition leads to osteoporosis, and bone fractures.
Menstruation can also stop, which can lead to loss of brain tissue.
Bulimia is when a person over eats and them vomits to purge themselves from all the possible weight.
These disorders can be caused by media, and the want to have control in ones life.
Culture and Eating Disorders
Asian and African Americans report to have fewer eating and dieting disorders and greater body satisfaction than do European Americans.
Mexican students report less concern about their own weight and more acceptance of obese people than do Caucasian students.
IV. Theories and Concepts of Emotion
● Three Components of Emotion (Physiological, Cognitive, and Behavioral)
○ The Physiological (Arousal) Component:
■ If someone were to jump out at you...these physiological changes would take place: increased heart rate and blood pressure, dilated pupils, perspiration, dry mouth, rapid or irregular breathing, increased blood sugar, trembling, and goose bumps.
■ These changes take place and the Autonomic Nervous System and your brain play a big part in why these changes happen.

The Brain
The cerebral cortex and limbic system are the two major areas of the brain that deal with out emotions.
The amygalda (an area of the limbic system) plays a big role in our emotional response of fear.

The Autonomic Nervous System
○ This part of your body known as the ANS is what causes the physical signs, as mentioned above.

● The Cognitive (Thinking) Component
○ The cognitive component of our emotions is very difficult to study, because it is “unethical” to create emotions for someone in a lab.
○ Some scientists however use surveys, interviews, and tests to try to measure someones emotions.

The Behavioral (Expressive) Component
This is define as “how emotions are expressed”
Someone can really tell how someone else is feeling easily through their body position, facial expressions, gestures, and the use of touch, eye gaze, and tone of voice.

● Four Major Theories of Emotion: (James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Facial Feedback, and Schachter’s Two Factor Theory)
○ James-Lange Theory
■ This theory goes against popular belief and says that if someone is smiling it is not because they are happy but rather they are happy because they are smiling.
■ It is solely based on our physiological arousal and behavioral expressions.
■ An example is say you are walking down the road and a man jumps out at you, the James-Lange Theory says that you will jump and run away and then you will show you will frown or cry.

● Cannon-Bard Theory
■ This theory is the opposite of the James-Lange Theory. This one says that the man jumps out at you, then the thalamus sends a message to your brain and then all the same time you react/ run and cry/show fear.

● Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
■ This theory is similar to the James-Lange Theory stating that you are happy because you smile not that you smile because you are happy.
■ It also says that you become happier the more you smile.
■ This also says that because of something called reciprocal- when you look at someone smiling the muscles used to smile are activated.

○ Schachter’s Two Factor Theory
■ This theory states that emotions depend on two things 1) physical arousal and 2) cognitive labeling of that arousal.
■ In other words we look to things outside to determine how we feel. For example if someone else is happy we are happy and if others are sad we are sad.

● Criticisms
■ James-Lange-- How does one know if they are happy or mad
■ Cannon-Bard Theory-- The thalamus may not be what really send the messages to the brain and body.
■ Facial-Feedback Hypothesis-- It does really help to smile when you are sad so that you feel happier.
■ Schachter’s two-factor-- they found that we can feel emotions without any conscious cognitive processes.

V. Critical Thinking About Motivation and Emotion
● Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation
○ Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual, The person engages in an activity for its own sake or for internal satisfaction; that means they’re not doing it for a reward or an ulterior purpose.
○ Intrinsic motivation stems from external rewards or avoidance of punishment, this is learned through interaction with the environment.
○ Participation in sports and/or hobbies is intrinsically motivated
○ Going to work is extrinsically motivated.
○ Extrinsic motivation usually only works if it is used to inform a person of superior performance or as a special treat.

● Polygraphs- Are they reliable?
○ Is based on the theory that when people lie, they feel guilty and anxious.
○ The polygraph monitors the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems- heart rate, breathing, and changes in skin conductance.
○ A polygraph cannot tell which emotion is being felt. It also can’t detect if a response is caused by emotional arousal or something else such as exercise, drugs, tense muscles, or even the experience of the polygraph test.

● Emotional Intelligence
○ Emotional intelligence involves knowing and managing one’s emotions, empathizing with others, and maintaining satisfying relationships
○ An emotionally intelligent person would combine these three components of emotions (cognitive, physiological, and behavioral).
○ Goleman suggests that having a high E.I. is why people with a modest IQ are often more successful than people with much higher IQ scores. He theorized that traditional measures of human intelligence ignore a crucial range of abilities that characterize people who succeed in real life.
○ Goleman proposed that many societal problems such as domestic abuse and violence among youth, is attributed to low E.I.
○ Critics of this theory of E.I. argue that the components are hard to identify and measure.

● Culture, Evolution, and Emotion
○ Studies have identified 7-10 basic emotions that may be universal- experienced and expressed in similar ways through almost all cultures.
○ Rules for emotional expression differ across cultures.
○ Many psychologists believe that emotions result from an interplay between evolution and culture.
Special Devices: 1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation: INtrinsic is based upon what is INside the person. EXtrinsic is based upon EXternal sources.
2. James Lange Theory: Emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression. Each emotion is physiologically distinct in this view.
3. Cannon-Bard Thoery: Arousal, behavior, and emotions occur simultaneously; in this view, all emotions are physiologically similar.
4. Facial- Feedback Hypothesis: Movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions.
5.Schatner’s two factor Theory: Emotions result from physical arousal and cognitive labeling (or interpretation)of that arousal based on external cues.
6. Instinct: Think of a baby or newborn animal’s instinct. Human babies have the rooting reflex, while baby animals have the instinct to get up and walking as soon as possible.
7. Arousal Theory: Each person searches for the right amount of activity. When there is too little to do, you get bored, when there is too much to do, you get overwhelmed such as writing an 16 page term paper as your little brother is nagging you to go to the zoo.
8. The Cognitive (Thinking) Perspective: Cognition relates to our thoughts and values. Therefore, what we think and belief will effect our resulting emotions.
9.The Behavioral (Expressive) Component: Behavior relates to our actions. Therefore, our emotions are shown, or expressed, through our behaviors such as facial expressions, gestures, body position, and tone of voice.
10. The Physiological (Arousal) Component: Physical aspects that we cannot control occur when emotion is present such as increased heart rate and dilated pupils.
11. Achievement Motivation: The need to excel in competition. Athletes often experience this especially as they receive awards for beating others.
12. Incentive Theory: external sources “pull” people towards desirable goals and “pushes” from undesirable ones. Hunger “pulls” you to eat but the type of food you’re eating might “push” you not to eat anymore once you see the not so preferred diner menu.
13. Putchik’s Wheel of Emotion: The inner circle represents the eightprimary emotions that seem to exist in all cultures. Emotions in the inner circle combine to form secondary emotions located outside the circle.


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Putchik's Wheel


14. Emotion: A subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognition (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running).


15. Motivaiton: Set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal.


Important People from Chapter 12
1. Robert Plutchik: Believed that all such as fear could be represented by colors on a color wheel and from these they could form secondary emotions such as love. Found that emotions that lay next to each other are more alike than those located farther apart. Believed that emotions in the inner circle combine to form secondary emotions located outside the circle. 2. Daniel Golemna: Was involved in emotional intelligence, which involves managing one’s emotions, empathizing with others and maintaining satisfying relationships. Suggests that having a high EI explains why people of modest IQ are often more successful than people with higher IQ scores. Believes societal problems, such as domestic abuse and youth violence, can be attributed to a low EI. He suggests that everyone fosters his or her EI. It is shown that schools who deal with Daniels proposal not only have positive attitudes about getting along with people but also they show improvements in critical thinking skills. 3. Joseph LeDoux: Had his input about the brain and the different switchboards that we have inside of us. LeDoux believed that when sensory inputs capable of eliciting emotions arrive in the thalamus, it sends messages along two independent pathways. One going up to the cortex and the other going directly to the nearby amygdala. He also believed that “false alarms” is our highly adaptive warning system, and it is essential to our survival. According to him our amygdala is so important and acts so quickly that it can help save us from life and death. 4. William Mcdougall- Proposed idea of human “instincts” (repulsion, curiosity, and self-assertiveness- Later on, researchers added other instincts to the list. By the 1920’s the list of recognized instincts became so long, that it was meaningless. 5. Eward O. Wilson- Proposed idea of human “instincts” (competition and aggression)- (1975, 1978), he is a sociobiologist who believed that humans have instincts like animals- such as competition and aggression. He believed that these instincts are generally transmitted from one generation to another.

6. Hull- Involved with Drive Reduction Theory which began to replace the theory of instincts. According to Drive-Reduction Theory all living organisms have certain biological needs (such as food, water, and oxygen) that must be met in order to survive. If these needs are unmet, a state of tension (known as a drive) is created, and the organism is motivated to reduce it. This theory is based on the concept of homeostasis- a state of balance or stability in the body’s internal environment.

7. Abraham Maslow- Believed that we all have a number of needs that compete for fulfillment where some needs are more important than others. He created the hierarchy of needs that prioritizes needs. Survival needs are placed at the bottom and self-actualization needs at the top.

8. Walter B. Cannon and A.L. Washburn- Conducted one of the earliest experiments exploring the internal factors of hunger. In the study, Washburn swallowed a balloon and then inflated it in his stomach to record any reports of stomach contractions and hunger feelings. The conclusion was that the stomach movement caused the sensation of hunger.

9. Henry Murray- is a psychologist that helps us understand what motivates “high-achieving motivation individuals.” He identifies it as a “high need for achievement.” (nAch) or Achievement Motivation which is the “desire to excel especially in competition with others.”

10. Christiana Morgan and Henry Murray- Murray as mentioned above partnered together with Christiana Morgan and came up with a test known as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). It was a test designed specifically for achievement motivation. With this test a participant would be given a picture and asked to describe what is going on/ “then their answers would be scored for different motivational themes.”

11. Richard de Charms and Gerald Moeller- Study found that there was a significant correlation between the achievement themes in children’s literature and the actual accomplishments of various countries. Achievement orientation appears to be largely learned in childhood, primarily through interactions with parents.

12. William James and Carl Lange- Both psychologists but from different times that both had the same idea about emotions. Believed that “emotions depend on feedback from our physiological arousal and behavioral expression.” This later bacome known as the James-Lange theory.

13. Walter Cannon and Philip Bard- Contributed to the “Cannon- Bard Theory” which holds that arousal, behavior and emotion occur simultaneously. Believed the thalamus sent simultaneous messages to the brain and body. Strongest point that all emotion is physiologically similar.

14. Stanely Schachter - Agrees with both James-Lange Theory and Cannon- Bard Theory therefore combined them to create “Schatner’s two-factor Theory”. All emotion relies on two factors: 1) Physical arousal and 2) cognitive labeling of that arousal. e.g. Someone is crying (physical arousal) but do we iterpret it as happiness or sadness (cognitive labeling).

15. Paul McHugh- Director of psychiatry at John Hopkins University.Suggests that Goleman is ‘presuming that someone has the key to the right emotions to be taught to children. We don’t even know the right emotions to be taught to adults’ (449). He is one of the many people to criticize Goleman for his idea of EI and could be “misused very easily.”
16. Charles Darwin- Proposed early on that emotions evolved in different species as a part of natural selection and survival. 17. Yerkes/ Dodson- These two physiologists came up with a law that shows the links between arousal and performance. The inverted U-shaped curve is what explains the arousal theory and their law further.

Interesting Facts
1.) A study done by the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University reported that half the 4,000 people responding to an online survey
about obesity said they would give up a year of their life rather than be fat. Another study showed that between 15 and 30 percent of obese people
would rather walk away from their marriage, give up the possibility of having children, be depressed, or become alcoholic rather than be fat.
(www.yaleruddcenter.com) 2.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_tEeYRSc-p8 3.)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gimcdV-8FzY
This video is a good example of Intrinsic Motivation because it shows that Forrest is doing it for himself
(internal reward/ because he enjoys running) not for someone/something else (external reward/ extrinsic motivation).
So when you are stuck between where it is Intrinsic or Extrinsic Motivation think of this video and think
“Run Forrest Run”...he ran INto the "Forrest"....because of a motivation from INside himself....known as INtrinsic Motivation.

4.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PR7coyxQuGo

This is a video of elmo that someone made at home, you have to watch closely but elmo tries to demonstrate the theories of emotion.


5) Polygraph Reliability

  • The debate has raged for years about whether polygraphs are reliable. They are not allowed in most state and federal courtrooms,
    but their use in other governmental settings continues to raise this question. While some scientists rate the validity of polygraph tests at 90 percent,
    which would still allow 10 percent of those tested to be wrongfully accused of lying. Others, most notably some psychologists,
    have rated the polygraph's reliability at 60 percent, which is not significantly better than a coin toss.
    (http://www.ehow.com/about_5421151_polygraph-testing.html)



Works Citied
Drive- Reduction Theory. N.d. rhsmpsychology.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2011.
<http://www.rhsmpsychology.com/images/drive%20reduction.jpg>
Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action. New York [u.a.: Wiley, 2006. Print.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs . N.d. psychology.wikia.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2011.
<http://images.wikia.com/psychology/images/c/c3/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs.png>.
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotion. N.d. pcayorks.blogspot.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2011.
<http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_apkn16ss8FA/S8TpfOOuFI/AAAAAAAAAOA/rZZ759H5LjE/s40 0/AAAAAARobertPlutchiksEmotionWheel.png>