Chapter 12: Motivation

Vocabulary

1. Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal

2. Emotion: a subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running)

3. Instincts: fixed response patterns that are unlearned and found in almost all members of a species

4. Drive-Reduction Theory: motivation beings with a physiological need (a lack or deficiency) that elicts a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need; once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases

5. Homeostasis: a body’s tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant internal temperature; literally means “standing still”

6. Arousal Theory: organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal

7. Incentive Theory: motivation results from external stimuli that “pull” the organism in certain directions

8. Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory that some motives (such a physiological and safety needs) mist be met before going on to higher needs ( such as belonging and self- actualization)

9. Extraneous Variables: factors that contribute irrelevant data and confuse the results

10. Thermogenesis: the heat generated in response to food ingestion

11. Lateral hypothalamus (LH): Simulates eating and if there is a lesion may cause anorexia

12. Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): creates feelings of satiation and signals the animal to stop eating; if there is a lesion in this part it may cause over eating

13. Anorexia Nervosa: Severe loss of weight resulting form self-imposed starvation and an obsessive fear of obesity

14. Bulimia Nervosa: Consuming large quantities of food (bingeing), followed by vomitting, extreme exercise, and/or laxative use (purging)

15. Achievement Motivation: Desire to excel, especially in competition with others

16. Polygraph: Instrument that measures heat rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and skin conductivity to detect emotional arousal, which in turn supposedly reflects lying versus truthfulness.

17. “Guilty Knowledge Questions:” One method to make a polygraph testing more reliable is to ask questions based on specific information that only a guilty person would know (such as the time a robbery was committed).

18. Emotional Intelligence: Daniel Goleman’s term for the ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize with others, and maintain satisfying relationships.

19. Culturally Universal Emotions: researchers believe that all people’s feelings can be condensed into seven to ten emotions no matter if a person is from another culture.

20. Robert Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions: a wheel comprising of eight primary emotions that seem to exist in all cultures (joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation). The primary emotions combine to form secondary emotions outside the circle (optimism, love, submission, awe, disappointment, remorse, contempt, aggressiveness). In addition, Plutchik also noted that emotions that lie next to each other are more alike then those farther apart.

21. Evolutionary theory of emotion: Darwin’s theory on emotion that proposed that expression o emotions evolved in different species as a part of survival and natural selection (e.g. fear helps human and nonhuman animals avoid danger). The modern theory also believes that basic emotions developed before thought because the limbic system (responsible for basic emotions) developed before the higher brain areas.

22. Emotional Display Rules: rules of a specific culture that govern how, when, and where to express emotion.

23. Amygdala: Area of the brain’s limbic system involved in emotional responses.

24. Epinephrine: also known as adrenaline, is a hormone secreted from the adrenal glands at the direction of the hypothalamus.

25. Study of Emotions: Psychologists define and study emotions according to three basic components including physiological, cognitive, and behavioral.

26. Cannon-Bard Theory: arousal, behavior, and emotions occur simultaneously; in this view, all emotions are physiologically similar.

27. James-Lange Theory: emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression (“I feel sad because I’m crying”); in this view, each emotion is physiologically distinct.

28. Facial-Feedback Hypothesis: movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions.

29. Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory: emotions result from physical arousal and cognitive labeling (or interpretation) of that arousal based on external cues.

30. Intrinsic Motivation: motivation resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity.

31. Extrinsic Motivation: motivation based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment.

32. Yerkes-Dobson Law: Human performance at any task varies with arousal in a predictable parabolic curve. At low arousal, people are lethargic and perform badly. As arousal increases, performance also increases - but only to a point, after which increasing arousal actually decreases performance.

33. Type A Personality: behavior characteristics including intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile attitude

34. Type B Personality: behavior characteristics consists with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude

35. Settling Point: refers to the idea that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium.

36. Set point: A set point is a theory that states everyone's body has a genetically determined range of weight and temperature that their body will try to maintain to stay at optimal health.


37. General Adaption Syndrome: Selye’s three-phase (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) reaction to severe stress


Outline


  • Motivation and Emotion
    • Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal
    • Emotion: A subject feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running)
      • Motivation is what motivates us to do a behavior, and emotion is the feelings that you receive from doing that behavior
  • Theories and Concepts of Motivation
    • The three general categories that six major theories of motivation fall into are: biological, psychological and biopsychological
  • Biological Theories: Looking for Internal “Whys” of Behavior
    • Instinct Theories
      • William McDougall, in the early times of psychology (1908), said that humans has uncountable instincts, like repulsion, curiosity, and self-assertiveness
      • Recently, sociobiology has defined instincts as fixed response patterns that are unlearned and found in almost all members of a species
      • Edward O. Wilson, a sociobiologist, also believes that people have instincts like aggression and competition that come genetics
    • Drive-Reduction Theory
      • The drive-reduction theory started to replace the instinct theory in the 1930s
      • Drive-Reduction Theory: motivation begins with a physiological need (a lack or deficiency) that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need; once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases
        • example: a person is driving in the car towards a destination and as they drive they reduce the distance just as you have a drive to eat and once a person eats or gets to their destination, their drive stops
      • Homeostasis: a body’s tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant internal temperature
        • example: When the body is out of homeostasis, like high body temperature, low blood sugar, etc, a desire is created and the body is motivated to go back to homeostasis
  • Arousal Theory- The Need for Stimulation
    • Shortly after birth, a humans need for arousal and sensory stimulation begins and continuous throughout life
    • Infants prefer a complex versus and simple visual stimuli, as well adults pay more attention to complex and changing stimuli
    • Organisms have the motivation to maintain a level of arousal that maximizes their performance
    • Yerkes-Dodson Law: Human performance at any task varies with arousal in a predictable parabolic curve. At low arousal, people are lethargic and perform badly. As arousal increases, performance also increases - but only to a point, after which increasing arousal actually decreases performance. Yerkes-Dodson Law from (http://changingminds.org/explanations/motivation/yerkes-dodson.htm)








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(Picture: Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action: Eighth Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007)

  • Psychological Theories: Incentives and Cognitions
    • Incentive Theory- Environmental “Pulls”
      • The incentive theories contrasts with the drive-reduction theory
      • Incentive Theory: motivation results from external stimuli that “pull” the organism in certain directions
        • incentive theory says that people eat because when the see food they want, it “pulls” them towards it; contradictory to the drive-reduction theory that says your hunger “pushes” you to the food
        • example: when I walk by a piece of chocolate cake I always have to eat it, even if I am not hungry, it is like I am pulled by a magnetic towards it
    • Cognitive Theories- Explaining Tings to Ourselves
      • The cognitive theory says that you feel motivation and satisfaction from attributions, how we interpret or think about our own and others; actions
      • People who work harder toward those goals have been researched to be the people who attribute their success to themselves and their personal ability
      • Expectancies are important to motivation; is a person feels like they are going to get something out of what they do, they are more motivated to perform the action
  • Biopsychological Theory: Interactionism Once Again
    • Abraham Maslow believed that every human being has numerous needs which complete fulfillment
      • Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s theory that some motives (such as physiological and safety needs) must be met before going on to higher needs (such as belongings and self-actualization)
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(Picture: Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action: Eighth Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007)

    • Maslow believed that we all had a desire to move up the pyramid and to improve ourselves and become self-actualized: the inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and capabilities
    • Critics state that Maslow’s theory is biased toward the Western individualism and poorly researched
      • Also, there are people who seek high needs of belongings or self-esteem before satisfying their physiological needs, like hunger

  • Motivation and Behavior

- Hunger and Eating: Multiple Biopsychosocial Factors
    • The Stomach
      • Walter Cannon and A.L. Washburn studied it by blowing up a balloon inside of a stomach. Results: the stomach movement caused the sensation of hunger. They did not take into account extraneous variables which are factors that contribute irrelevant data and confuse the results
      • They later found that the stomach when empty is relatively inactive. It only contracted because it was trying to digest the balloon.
      • Sensory input from the stomach is not essential for felling hungry
      • receptors in the stomach and intestines detect nutrients levels and signify fullness. There are also parts of the gastrointestinal tract that release chemicals that play a role in this.
    • Biochemistry
      • Other factors besides neurotransmitters, hormones, enzymes, and other chemicals affect hunger like thermogenesis: the heat generated in response to food ingestion.
    • The Brain
      • lateral hypothalamus (LH) - the part of the brain that stimulates eating and if there is a lesion on this part it causes the organism to starve itself (( Lateral - grow Larger)
      • ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) - creates feelings of satiation and signals the animal to stop eating. If there is a lesion on this part of the brain the animal to overeat (http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/foodintake.html)

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Psychosocial Factors:
  • The sight of food and other stimulus cues (like time of day and food advertisements) act as external triggers to hunger and eating.

  • Cultural Conditioning
    • for example: North Americans eat their evening meal around 6pm and Spanish people eat around 10pm. Also what we eat is influenced by culture.
  • Obesity
    • ½ of the adults in the U.S. are “clinically obese”
    • Can put the individual at risk for heart disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, strokes, and death.
    • One reason is overeating and not enough exercise.
    • ability to burn calories more effectively is due to thermogenesis, and a higher metabolic rate.
    • Another reason for obesity can be genes
    • To lose weight - even though there are drastic surgeries - the most successful way is to diet and exercise.

  • Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
    • anorexia nervosa - self-starvation and extreme weight loss
    • bulimia nervosa - consuming large quantities of food (bingeing), followed by vomiting, extreme exercise, and/or laxative use (purging)
    • more than 50% of women in Western industrialized countries show some signs of eating disorder and approximately 2% meet the official criteria for anorexia or bulimia
    • anorexia is characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese, a disturbed body image, the need for control, and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
    • Can lead to osteoporosis, bone fractures, stopping of the menstruation cycle, enlarged ventricles (cavities) and widened grooves in the brain, and loss of brain tissue.
    • people with bulimia often show impulsivity in other areas like excessive shopping, alcohol abuse, or petty shoplifting.
    • both of these diseases are associated with eroded tooth enamel and tooth loss, severe damage to the throat and stomach, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic deficiencies, and serious digestive disorders
    • Causes for anorexia and bulimia:
      • hypothalamic disorders, low levels of various neurotransmitters, and genetic or hormonal disorders
      • need for perfection, a perceived loss of control, destructive thought patterns, depression, dysfunctional families, distorted body image, and sexual abuse
  • Culture and Eating Disorders
    • differences in perceptions and stereotypes about eating, thinness, and obesity
      • ex. Asian and African Americans report fewer eating and dieting disorders and greater body satisfaction than do European Americans
    • both culture and biology help explain eating disorders
    • Fahrenheit
  • Set Point
    • A set point is the theory that states every person’s body has determined a weight and temperature genetically that their bodily naturally will try to maintain through homeostasis to keep that person healthy
    • The hypothalamus acts as a “thermostat” to maintain one’s weight
      • activates the lateral hypothalamus when you diet
      • activates the ventromedial when you start to put on weight to make you not as hungry
  • Settling Point: refers to the idea that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium

  • Achievement: The Need for Success:
    • The key to understanding what motivates high-achieving individuals lies in what psychologist Henry Murray identified as a high need for achievement (nAch).
    • Achievement motivation: the desire to excel, especially in competition with others
    • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): involves asking participants to make up a story devised from a series of ambiguous pictures - their responses are scored for different motivational themes, including achievement
      • The (TAT) was one of the earliest tests for achievement motivation and was devised by Christiana Morgan and Henry Murray.
    • Today, researchers have developed several questionnaires that measure achievement.
    • Achievement orientation appears to be learned in early childhood, primarily through interactions with parents
      • Highly motivated people tend to have parents who encourage independence and frequently reward success
    • Our culture also affects our achievement needs
        • Example: Richard de Charms and Gerald Moeller found a significant correlation between the achievement themes in children’s literature and the actual industrial accomplishments of various countries
    • Hunger is one of the strongest motivational drives
    • Biological and Psychosocial forces affect our eating behaviors

  • Theories and Concepts of Emotion:
      • Motivation is inextricably linked to emotion
      • Psychologists define and study emotions according to their three basic components - physiological, cognitive, and behavioral
    • The Physiological (Arousal) Component:
      • mnemonic device: “Around Some Alleys Lie...” = Arousal
        • If someone or something is lurking around a corner our predominant emotion fear would take over causing several physiological reactions to occur, stimulating our autonomic nervous system.
      • The Brain
        • Our emotional experiences result from important interactions in mostly the cerebral cortex and the limbic system
        • Cerebral Cortex: the outermost layer of the brain, serves as our body’s ultimate control and information processing center, including our ability to recognize and regulate our emotions
        • If your Phineas Gage’s cortex is injured, you may no longer be able to monitor or control your emotions
        • Electrical stimulation of specific areas of the limbic system can produce an automatic “sham rage” - called “sham” because it occurs in the absence of provocation and disappears immediately when stimulus is removed
        • One area of the limbic system, the amygdala, plays a key role in the emotion of fear - it sends signals to other areas of the brain causing our hearts to speed up as well as all the other physiological reactions related to fear
        • Some emotional arousal can occur without conscious awareness
      • When sensory input is capable of eliciting emotions they arrive in the thalamus which sends the message along two different pathways - the one leading to the cortex and the other to the amygdala
      • If the amygdala senses a threat it immediately activates the body’s alarm system, long before the cortex has had a chance to really “think” about the stimulus
      • LeDoux believes that this is a highly adaptive warning system that is essential to our survival

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(Highlights the areas of the limbic system)
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      • The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):
        • The ANS produces the obvious signs of emotional arousal (increased heart rate, fast and shallow breathing, trembling, etc.)
        • The ANS has two major subdivisions:
          • Parasympathetic Nervous System: when emotionally aroused it will increase your heart rate, respiration, and triggers the “fight or flight” response
          • Sympathetic Nervous System: when relaxed and resting it works to calm the body and maintain homeostasis
            • The combined action of the two systems allows us to respond to emotional arousal and then return to a more relaxed state
      • Adrenaline:
        • Also known as epinephrine, is a hormone secreted from the adrenal glands at the direction of the hypothalamus
        • The sympathetic nervous system is almost instantaneously “turned on” along with the limbic system and frontal lobes
        • Epinephrine and nonrepinephrine keep the system under sympathetic control until the emergency is over

    • The Cognitive (Thinking) Component
        • mnemonic device: “Thin” + “King” = Thinking
        • Psychologists use “thin” methods of studying our emotions (paper-and-pencil tests). We are the “kings” of our emotion responses because we control them.
      • Our thoughts, values, and expectations also help determine the type of intensity of our emotional responses - consequently emotional reactions are very individual
        • Psychologists typically use self-report techniques such as paper-and-pencil tests, surveys, and interviews to study our cognitive emotions
      • Problems:
        • Our emotions however, are often difficult to measure and describe scientifically
        • Individuals differ in their ability to monitor and report on their emotional states
        • Some people may hide their feelings due to social expectations or attempt to please the experimenter
        • It is impractical and unethical to artificially create emotions in a laboratory
        • Our individual needs, experiences, and personal interpretations all affect the accuracy of our memories

    • The Behavioral (Expressive) Component
        • mnemonic device: “Express It Vertically” = Expressive
        • We more often express our emotions non-verbally through facial expressions; gestures; body position; and the use of touch, eye gaze, and tone of voice
        • Facial expressions may be our most important form of emotional communication
      • Differences between the “social smile” and the “Duchenne smile”
        • “Social smile”: our voluntary cheek muscles are pulled back but our eyes are unsmiling
        • “Duchenne smile”: use the muscles not only around the cheeks but also around the eyes
        • People that show a real, or “Duchenne smile” elicit more positive responses from strangers and enjoy better interpersonal relationships and personal enjoyment

  • James-Lange Theory: emotions are the result of physiological arousal and behavioral expression. Example: I feel sad because I am crying.
    • This theory was originated by William James and expanded by Carl Lange.
    • In other words we behave in a certain way because of a stimulus and that behavior is then interpreted as an emotion.
    • *believes if there is no arousal there is no emotion

  • Cannon-Bard Theory:** arousal, behavior, and emotion occur at the same time and all emotions are physiologically similar.
    • Walter Cannon and Philip Bard believed that after seeing an emotion-provoking stimulus, the thalamus sends simultaneous messages to the brain and the body. These messages are what leads to ANS arousal, behavioral reactions, and emotions.
    • Major point: all emotions are physiologically similar
    • * believes arousal is not even a necessary or major factor in emotion

  • Facial-Feedback Hypothesis:** moving facial muscles produces and/or intensifies emotional reactions.
    • when we contract our various facial muscles it sends messages to our brain that help us to identify emotions. (agrees with James-Lange theory that behavior makes us feel emotions)
    • also suggests that seeing another person’s facial expressions causes a reciprocal change in our facial muscles without us realizing it.

  • Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory: emotions depend on 1) physical arousal and 2) cognitive labeling of that arousal.
    • Stanley Schachter’s agrees with the James-Lange Theory that emotion comes from awareness of our behavior, but also the Cannon-Bard theory that emotions are physiologically similar. Example: We cry at weddings and at funerals but at a wedding our tears come from our joy and at funerals from our sadness.
    • Schachter did a study to explain this theory. In this study participants were given shots of epinephrine but told it was a vitamin.
      • There were three groups:
1. a correctly informed group who was told the expected effects
2. a misinformed group who was not told correctly the expected effects
3. an uninformed group who was told nothing about effects
      • The participants were put in a room with a confederate acting as another participant who either acted happy or sad.
      • Results: those who were misinformed and uniformed looked to the situation to explain the way they were feeling because they did not have a good explanation for it themselves. Therefore those people acted the same way the confederate did. The informed people though knew their feelings came from the shot they were given so they were unaffected by the confederate.
      • This study explains how cognitive labeling plays a big part in our emotions.
  • Which theory is the correct theory?
    • James-Lange Theory: fails to acknowledge that physical arousal can occur without emotional experiences and is limited because it requires there is a different pattern of arousal for each emotion. This theory is true in the fact that there are subtle differences in the brain with basic emotions; the only issue is we are not aware of it so there has to be more of an explanation for emotion.
    • Cannon-Bard Theory: has some experimental support as people with spinal cord damage can still feel emotion but other research also shows that the limbic system, hypothalamus, and prefrontal cortex are most important to emotional experience.
    • Facial-Feedback Theory: partially confirms James-Lange theory that there is a distinctive physiological response for basic emotions. Facial feedback does contribute to intensity of emotions.
    • Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory: correctly emphasizes importance of cognitive process in emotions. Has been criticized though because emotion can take place without conscious cognitive processes .

  • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
    • Intrinsic Motivation: motivations resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity. Example: someone plays guitar because they enjoy playing and it makes them happy
    • Extrinsic Motivation: motivation based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment. Example: going to work because you have to in order to make a living
    • Extrinsic awards can often cause someone to lost interest and enjoyment from an activity.
      • This was shown in a experiment given to preschoolers who liked to draw. One group was promised a certificate for their drawings and the second group was asked to draw and then received an unexpected reward when they finished. A third group was not promised or given anything.
      • A few weeks later the participants were told they could draw if they wanted to.
      • The study showed that those promised a reward were not as interested in drawing because a big factor to enjoying a task is how we interpret our motivation. When you add impersonal reasons to a task you decrease enjoyment.
    • Extrinsic motivation can be good though. If we get a raise or win a gold medal then we are told we are good at what we are doing and this can increase enjoyment of that task. It becomes bad though when it is used to control.

  • Improving Motivation:
    • Limit concrete extrinsic rewards
      • e.g.: only reward yourself when you have made a significant improvement with a difficult task.
      • praise and positive feedback are usually safe to use to increase intrinsic motivation
    • Reward Competency
      • use extrinsic rewards to provide positive feedback for competency and not for just simply attempting an activity or behavior.
    • Emphasize intrinsic reasons for behavior
      • Focus on satisfying the self instead of focusing on trying to meet society norms for success.
        • e.g.: Getting good grades because it satisfies you personally instead of getting good grade to please others and to get a good job.
  • The Polygraph:
    • Polygraph: an instrument that measures heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and skin conductivity to detect emotional arousal, which in turn is supposedly able to detect truth from lies.
        • mnemonic device: Po LIES about his graph (Polygraph).
          • will help with remembering that a polygraph is associated with detecting lies but also has issues accurately detecting whether a person is lying or not (hence lying about the graph)
    • a polygraph supposedly detects anxious and guilty feelings which are in theory are emotions that people feel when they lie.
      • Research now shows that feelings of guilt and anxiety are only a little connected to lying
    • a polygraph does actually monitor sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems’ activity but does not necessarily or accurately detect lies.
    • Problems with the Polygraph:
      • some people are nervous when telling the truth while some people are calm when they lie.
      • the polygraph cannot tell which particular emotion is being felt (e.g. whether the person is feeling nervous or excited)
      • cannot tell whether a response on the graph is due to internal emotional arousal or some other factor (e.g. exercise, drugs, muscle tension)
      • smallest movements can affect the outcome of the response (e.g. biting tongue or pressing toes to the floor)
      • Error rates between 25-75%
      • National Research Council states that the polygraph does not have sufficient evidence to support its claim on accurate ability to detect lies
    • Ways to Make the Polygraph More Reliable:
      • use “guilty knowledge” questions: questions based on information only a guilty person would know (e.g. the time a robbery was committed)
        • the guilty person would register the clues and respond to the question in a different way than an innocent person.
      • use computers and statistical analyses to increase a polygraph’s reliability and validity

  • Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence:
    • Emotional Intelligence (EI): Daniel Goleman’s term for the ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize with others, and maintain satisfying relationships.
      • a person with high emotional intelligence combines the cognitive, physiological, and behavior aspects of emotion.
    • Goleman suggests that people with higher emotional intelligences have average IQ scores while people with lower EIs have higher IQ scores.
    • Goleman suggests that a lot of society’s problems, such as domestic abuse, can be linked to a low emotional intelligence.
    • Criticism:
      • the components of EI are too difficult to accurately identify or measure
      • the term could bring out misuse as to what emotions are considered “right.”

  • Culture and Emotion:
    • Culturally Universal Emotions: researchers believe that all people’s feelings can be condensed into 7 to 10 emotions no matter if a person is from another culture.
      • The emotions that are the same in all cultures are expressed and recognized the same way as well in all cultures.
        • e.g. An American and a Japanese person both acting surprised at something they saw on TV and making the same facial features to express their surprise.
      • Six basic emotions that can be identified no matter what culture one is from include: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, and surprise
        • mnemonic device: Angela fed her small dog, Skippy
            • (Angela for anger, fed for fear, her for happiness, small for sadness, dog for disgust, and Skippy for surprise)
    • Robert Plutchick’s Wheel of Emotions: a wheel comprising of eight primary emotions that seem to exist in all cultures (joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation). The primary emotions combine to form secondary emotions outside the circle (optimism, love, submission, awe, disappointment, remorse, contempt, aggressiveness). In addition, Plutchik also noted that emotions that lie next to each other are more alike then those farther apart.
      • mnemonic device for the eight primary emotions: Antsy Joy Accepted Fear as Sir.Prise was Saddened by D.Gust’s Anger



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(Picture: Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action: Eighth Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007)

    • Evolutionary theory of emotion: Darwin’s theory on emotion that proposed that expression of emotions evolved in different species as a part of survival and natural selection (e.g. fear helps human and nonhuman animals avoid danger).
      • The modern theory also believes that basic emotions developed before thought because the limbic system (responsible for basic emotions) developed before the higher brain areas.
      • Cross-cultural studies typically support the evolutionary theory
        • e.g.: Infants only hours old show expressions that closely match those of adults even if they are blind or deaf.
    • Cultural Differences:
      • Emotional Display Rules: rules of a specific culture that govern how, when, and where to express emotion.
        • parent’s pass down to their children their specific culture’s rules by responding differently to the emotions that their children display so as to foster the emotions that their children should express and which ones they should control.
          • e.g. A Japanese parent teaches their child that one should cover negative emotions they are feeling (such as anger) with a smile or a stoic expression.

  • Seyle’s General Adaption Syndrome (GAS):
    • General Adaption Syndrome (GAS): The three phases that react to severe stress (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion)
      • Initial Phase: Alarm Reaction
        • The body reacts to the stressor by mobilizing the sympathetic nervous system (the system of arousal)
        • The body is aroused to deal with the source of stress
      • Second Phase: Resistance Phase
        • If stressor remains, physiological arousal remains relatively high as the body attempts to adapt itself to the stressor
        • Diseases of Adaption can develop (e.g. asthma, ulcers, and high blood pressure)
      • Third Phase: Exhaustion Phase
        • If stressor remains for a long time and the resistance phase was not successful, all adaptation energy in the body becomes depleted, susceptibility to illness increases, and the parasympathetic system takes over.

(Table: Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action: Eighth Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007)


Important People


William McDougall- proposed that humans had numerous “instincts,” such as repulsion curiosity, and self-assertiveness

Edward O. Wilson- believed humans also have instincts, like competition and aggression. He said these instincts are genetically transmitted from one generation to another.

Clark Hull- invented the Drive Reduction Theory, which is a biological process that occurs when homeostasis is disrupted causing a drive to reduce the tension to regain a balance in the body. Criticism: cognitive aspect says this theory does not explain which may cause us to go over or under or biological needs.

Abraham Maslow - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.All people have numerous needs that compete for fulfillment but some needs are more important like physiological needs (hunger, thirst, homeostasis) then self-actualization. The list goes: physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs and last self-actualization needs. Criticisms include: parts of his theory is poorly researched and biased toward Western individualism.Some people may at times seek to satisfy higher-needs even when lower-level needs have not been met.

Walter B. Cannon and A.L. Washburn - studied the contractions of the stomach by swallowing a balloon and blowing it up inside the stomach. They concluded that stomach movement caused the sensation of hunger but there were extraneous variables. It was later found that an empty stomach is relatively inactive

Carl Rogers - Humanist psychologist who stressed free will, self-actualization (a state of self-fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential), and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking. He emphasized our unique ability to make voluntary choices about our own life and behavior

Yerkes/Dodson - came up with the optimal level of arousal graph. Performance is diminished when arousal is to high or too low and we do our best when arousal is at its mid-range, “optimal” level.

Henry Murray - Thematic Apperception Test and Achievement Motivation. Researchers asked participants to make up a story about each picture. Their responses are scored for different motivational themes, including achievement. Criticisms include: outdated method, researchers have now developed several questionnaire measures of achievement.

Joseph LeDoux - The “false alarms” of the amygdala. If the amygdala senses a threat it immediately activates the body’s alarm system, before the cortex has a chance to “think” about the stimulus. LeDoux believes it to be essential to our survival and it “may be the difference between life and death”; for example mistaking a snake for a stick.

Duchenne de Boulogne - The Duchenne smile. In a false, social smile, our voluntary cheek muscles are pulled back, but our eyes are unsmiling. A Duchenne smile, is a real smile, that uses the muscles around the cheeks and eyes. This smile elicits more positive responses from strangers, as well as better interpersonal relationships and better personal adjustment.

William James and Carl Lange - James- Lange Theory. Says that emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression. In this view each emotion is physiologically distinct. If there is no arousal or expression then there is no emotion.

Walter Cannon and Philip Bard - Cannon-Bard Theory. Proposed that after perception of the emotion-provoking stimulus, the thalamus sends simultaneous messages to the brain and body. The simultaneous messages lead to ANS arousal, behavioral reactions, and emotions. Major point of the theory is that all emotions are physiologically similar. Arousal is not even a necessary or even major factor in emotion. Cannon showed this through experiments with nonhuman animals in which he surgically prevented them from experiencing physiological arousal but they still showed observable behaviors that could be labeled emotional reactions.

Stanley Schachter and Singer - Two-Factor Theory. Emotions depend on two factors: 1)physical arousal and 2) cognitive labeling of that arousal. In their study participants were given shots of epinephrine and told it was a vitamin. One group was told the correct effects to expect, a second group was misinformed about the effects, and a third group was told nothing about possible effects. Participants were then placed in a room with either a happy or angry confederate. Participants who did not have an appropriate cognitive label for their emotional arousal (the misinformed and uniformed groups) tended to look to the situation for an explanation (they acted as the confederate did). The informed group was unaffected by the confederate.

Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence (EI). Goleman defined EI as the ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize wit others, and maintain satisfying relationships. High emotional intelligence would mean combining the cognitive, physiological, and behavior components of emotion and excelling in self-awareness, impulse control, persistence, zeal and self-motivation, empathy, and social deftness. Criticisms include: components of EI difficult to identify and measure; fear that term of EI could be misused to direct what emotions should be taught.

Robert Plutchik - Wheel of emotions. Suggested that eight primary emotions (joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation) are like “colors” on a wheel that combine to form secondary emotions (love, submission, awe, disappointment, remorse, contempt, aggressiveness, and optimism). The eight primary emotions exist in all cultures.

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe - Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Believed that any change in behavior or lifestyle could cause stress and that numerous stressful events and the higher stress one has increases chances of developing illnesses or health problems. Created the SRRS where people check off all life events experienced within past year. Each event is assigned a numerical rating expressed in life changing units that are added up (0-149=No real problems; 150-199=Mild Life Crisis; 200-299=Moderate Life Crisis; 300+=Major Life Crisis). Criticisms include: only shows a correlation between stress and illness and therefore does not prove causation; stress varies according to an individuals interpretation.

Hans Seyle - General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Determined that a person has a three phase (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) reaction to severe stress. If body remains in long periods of stress persist, the stress can cause physiological changes that can be detrimental to one’s health. Alarm phase: sympathetic system mobilizes body to defend against stress; Resistance phase: arousal remains high while body tries to defend against and adapt to stress; Exhaustion phase: ability to resist may collapse, susceptibility to illness increases. Criticisms include: it ignores both the psychological impact of stress on an individual, and the individuals ability to recognize stress and act in various ways to change his or her situation.

Interesting Facts

  • Beating the Lie Detector (Polygraph)
    • The article, “How to Beat the Lie Detector,” written by William Scott Stewart in 1941 and taken from the AntiPolgraph.org website serves as early criticism for the presently growing doubt of the validity of polygraphs. In the article, Stewart provides ways in which people subject to a polygraph can apparently influence the results. Stewart suggests that the polygraph’s sensitivity to the bodily functions it measures is faulty since a person can perform several actions to twist their results. These ways include:
      • Do not conceal all emotion but “intensify them” even on “those preliminary innocent questions” (Stewart)
      • If one bites the inside of the mouth or tongue one will cause the polygraph to create a false reading on the “innocent” questions causing the operator to “wonder what’s the matter with his machine.”
      • Muscular movements, like a twitch of the leg or the movement of the big toe, that the operator cannot notice and you can mess up the readings on the polygraph
      • Do not hesitate with answers
    • With his article, Stewart showed how easy it is to fool a polygraph or how even nervousness can cause the operator to think a person is lying by the elevated readings of heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure.
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) - Is it effective?
    • According to the website minddisorders.com, the article regarding the Thematic Apperception Test “considers the test to be effective in eliciting information about a person's view of the world and his or her attitudes toward the self and others” because “through the various story cards and tell stories about the pictures, they reveal their expectations of relationships with peers, parents or other authority figures, subordinates, and possible romantic partners”.
    • “The examiner evaluates the subject's manner, vocal tone, posture, hesitations, and other signs of an emotional response to a particular story picture”.
      • “For example, a person who is made anxious by a certain picture may make comments about the artistic style of the picture, or remark that he or she does not like the picture; this is a way of avoiding telling a story about it”.
    • “The TAT is often used in individual assessments of candidates for employment in fields requiring a high degree of skill in dealing with other people and/or ability to cope with high levels of psychological stress— such as law enforcement, military leadership positions, religious ministry, education, diplomatic service, etc.”
      • “Often administered to individuals who have already received a diagnosis in order to match them with the type of psychotherapy best suited to their personalities”.
    • “Sometimes used for forensic purposes in evaluating the motivations and general attitudes of persons accused of violent crimes”.
      • “For example, the TAT was recently administered to a 24-year-old man in prison for a series of sexual murders. The results indicated that his attitudes toward other people are not only outside normal limits but are similar to those of other persons found guilty of the same type of crime”.
  • Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs
  • Anorexia and Bulimia
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSfZP4WYh5U
    • Other Interesting Fact: The Growth of Lanugo
      • the “fine white hair that grows mainly on the arms and chests of female anorexics.” (Morrisey)
      • begins to grow as a way for the body to insulate itself since some severe cases of women with anorexia do not have sufficient enough body fat to produce their own heat.
      • the hairs grow in places that would normally not have a lot of hair such as “the chest, back, arms, neck and face.”
  • James-Lange Theory and Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory

Works Cited:
AandWrocks. Facts on Eating Disorders. YouTube

If You Know Nothing About Psychology: Emotions (Part 2). YouTube. N.p., 31 March 2010.
Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4EsV21_-Xhg>.

Maslow's Pyramid. Youtube. N.p., 26 Aug. 2007. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNXSnSk8h7Q&feature=related.

Morrisey, Beth. “Lanugo and Eating Disorders.” EatingDisorderExpert.co.uk//. 20 July 2007.
Web. 30 March 2011. <http://www.eatingdisorderexpert.co.uk/LanugoAndEatingDisorders.html>.

Stewart, William Scott. “How to Beat the Lie Detector.” Esquire. 1941 Nov. Web. 29 March 2011. http://antipolygraph.org/articles/article-034.shtml.

"Thematic Apperception Test - Define, Therapy, Person, People, Used, Personality, Score, Women, Health." Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Web. 30 Mar. 2011.

<http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Thematic-Apperception-Test.html>.