Chapter 13: Personality

VOCAB:
  1. Personality- Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  2. Trait - Relatively stablepersonal characteristic that can be used to describe someone.
  3. Factor Analysis - statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data.
  4. Five-factor Model - Trait theory of personality at includes openness, consciousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
  5. Conscious - In Freudian terms,thoughts, or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering.
  6. Preconscious - Freud's term for thoughts, motives or memories that can voluntarily be brought to mind.
  7. Unconscious - Frued's term door thoughts, motives, and memories blocked from normal awareness.
  8. Id - According to Frued the source of instinctual energy which works on the pleasure principle, and is concerned with immediate gratification.
  9. Pleasure Principle - In Frued's theory, the principle on which the id operates - seeking immediate pleasure.
  10. Ego - In Frued's theory, the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the I'd, while also satisfying the superego; from the Latin term ego, meaning "I."
  11. Reality Principle- According to Freud, the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and superego and the realities of the environment.
  12. Superego- In Freud’s theory, the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality.
  13. Morality Principle- The principle on which the superego may operate, which results in feelings of guilt if its rules are violated.
  14. Defense Mechanisms- In Freudian theory, the ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality.
    • Rationalization: Reducing conflict by justifying the wrong-doing
    • Repression: the mechanism by which the ego prevents the most anxiety-provoking or unacceptable thoughts and feelings from entering consciousness; the first and most basic form of anxiety reduction.
    • Sublimation: Redirecting unmet desires or unacceptable impulses into acceptable activities.
    • Denial: Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it.
    • Intellectualization: Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words, or ideas.
    • Projection: transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives, or impulses to others.
    • Reaction formation: refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges, thoughts, or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state.
    • Regression: responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development.
    • Displacement: Redirecting impulses toward a less threatening person or object


  1. Repression- Freud’s first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness.
  2. Psychosexual Stages- In Freudian theory, five developmental periods (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) during which particular kinds of pleasures must be grateful if personality development is to proceed normally. 1.) Oral stage- (12 to 18 months) erogenous zone is the mouth. Infants receive satisfaction through biting, teething, sucking etc. 2.) Anal stage- (18 months to 3 years) erogenous zone is the anus. Child receives satisfaction through bowel movements. 3.) Phallic stage- (3 to 6 years old) major center of pleasure is the genitals. The Oedipus complex comes into play. 4.) Latency stage- (6 years to puberty) the phase where children associate with same sex partners and develop in social and intellectual skills, straying from sexual thoughts. 5.) Genital stage- (puberty to adult) Genitals again are the erogenous zone and adolescents seek to fulfill their sexual desires through emotional attachment with the opposite sex.
  3. Oedipus Complex- Period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent.
  4. Inferiority Complex- Adler’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence.
  5. Collective Unconscious- Jung’s concept of a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share.
  6. Archetypes- According to Jung, the images and patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious.
  7. Basic Anxiety- According to Horney, the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment.
  8. Collectivistic Cultures- The needs and goals of the group are emphasizes over the needs and goals of the individual
  9. Individualistic Cultures- The needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
  10. Thematic Apperception Test- A projective test that shows a series of ambiguous black-and-white pictures and ask the test-taker to create a story related to each; the responses presumably reflect a projection of unconscious processes
  11. Projective Tests- psychological tests using ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or drawings, which allow the test taker to project his or her unconscious onto the test material.
  12. Rorschach Inkblot Test- A projective teat that presents a set of 10 cards with symmetrical abstract patterns and asks respondents to describe what they “see” in the image; their response is thought to be a projection of unconscious processes
  13. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- The most widely researched and clinically used self-report personality test
  14. Self-Efficacy- Bandura’s term for a person’s learned expectation of success
  15. Reciprocal Determinism- Bandura’s belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality
  16. Self-Actualization- Maslow’s term for the inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and capabilities
  17. Unconditional Positive Regard- Rogers’s term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
  18. Conditional Positive Regard- acceptance and caring given to a person only for meeting certain standards of behavior.
  19. Penis Envy- Hostile feelings that are directed towards the mother because the daughter blames her for her anatomical "deficiency". According to Freud, penis envy is reflected by a woman's feelings of cultural inferiority, not biological inferiority.
  20. External Locus of Control- People think that the environment and external forces have primary control over their lives.
  21. Internal Locus of Control- People attribute the cause or control of events to something inside of themselves
  22. Real vs. Ideal Self - who you are vs. who you want to be.
  23. Mesomorph - a person with a muscular body. Tends to be more adventurous and wants power.
  24. Ectomorph - a person with a lean body. Has a more shy or reserved personality.
  25. Endomorph - a person with a round body and high proportion to fat. Tends to have a "fun" personality.





CHAPTER OUTLINE:


CHAPTER 13: PERSONALITY

Personality: Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions.
i.e.: extrovert -- outgoing, talkative.
introvert -- shy, reserved.
Personality researchers seek to:
describe individual differences in personality
explain how those differences come about
predict individual behavior based on personality findings
5 Most Prominent Theories: trait, psychoanalytic/psycho-dynamic, humanistic, social-cognitive, and biological.

I. TRAIT THEORIES

Trait: Relatively stable personal characteristic that can be used to describe someone
Theorists interested in:
which key traits best describe
the degree of variation in traits within the individual and among individuals

A. Early Trait Theorists: Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck

● Gordon Allport -- enormous list of traits
○ study an individual and then arrange his or her unique personality traits into a hierarchy. (Most important at the top, least important at bottom)
Factor analysis: statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data
● Raymond Cattell -- condensed list to 30-35 traits
● Hans Eysenck -- reduced list further
○ three basic types of traits:
        • extroversion-introversion
        • neuroticism (anxiety, guilt, moodiness)
        • psychoticism

B. The Five-Factor Model: Five Basic Personality Traits

Five Factor Model (FFM): Trait theory of personality that includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
● THE BIG FIVE:
○ (O) Openness
          • High ratings: original, imaginative, curious, open to new ideas, artistic, interest in cultural pursuits
          • Low ratings: conventional, down to earth, narrower in their interests, not artistic
○ (C) Conscientiousness
          • High ratings: conscientious, hard-working, organized, punctual
          • Low ratings: negligent, lazy, disorganized, late
○ (E) Extroversion
○ (A) Agreeableness
○ (N) Neuroticism
O. C. E. A. N.

washington-ocean-shores.jpg



(Grea ocean road)

C. Evaluating Trait Theories: The Pros and Cons
● Evolutionary perspective: confirmed by cross-cultural studies & comparative studies with other species
● FFM:
○ the first to achieve the major goal of trait theory, to describe and organize personality characteristics using few traits
○ critics argue that personalities cannot just be narrowed down to 5 traits
○ does not suggest causal explanations for the traits
● Criticisms of trait theories:
○ Lack of explanation
■ difficulty explaining why people develop these traits of why personality traits differ across cultures
○ Lack of specificity
■ have not identified which characteristics last a lifetime and which are most likely to change
○ Ignoring situational effects
■ ignore the importance of situational and environmental effects
● EXAMPLE: Fred Rogosch & Dante Cicchetti studied 6 yr old victims of abuse and neglect scored lower on openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness but high on neuroticism; they were reassessed at 7,8, & 9 and they found those traits persisted.
■ Interactionist perspective: just as nature and nurture are inseparable and interactive, so is situation/environment with relatively stable traits.


II. PSYCHOANALYTIC/PSYCHODYMANIC THEORIES

● Psychoanalytic (psychodynamic) theories of personality attempt to explain individual differences by examining how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings, and actions.
○ Freud’s most influential followers-Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, and Karen Horney
A. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Four Key Concepts

● Freud’s four key concepts include:
i.Levels of Consciousness
ii.Personality Structure
iii.Defense Mechanisms
iv.Pshychosexual Stages of Development

1. Levels of Consciousness
●Freud believed that the mind (“psyche”) functioned on three levels of consciousness (think of it like an iceberg; gets bigger lower):
1. Conscious- part of the mind that consists of all thoughts or motives that we are currently aware of or are remembering
2. Preconscious- includes thoughts or motives that are not part of our current thoughts but are able to be readily brought to mind
○ Example: You smell fresh cookies and you become happy. You become conscious of your happy emotion. However, without close examination you may not realize that the smell reminds you of your grandma, whom you miss.
3. Unconscious- lies below the preconscious and forms the bulk of the psyche
○ stores our primitive, instinctual motives, plus anxiety-laden thoughts and memories blocked from normal awareness
○ has big impact on our behavior-reveals itself despite our intentions

●Freud believed most psychological disorders originate from repressed (hidden) memories and instincts (sexual and aggressive) stored in the unconscious
○ to treat these disorders he developed psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis- a type of therapy designed for identifying and resolving problems stored in the unconscious

2. Personality Structure
●Freud also believed that personality was composed of three interacting mental structures:
1. id
2. ego
3. superego
a. The Id
●The source of instinctual energy, which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification
○ it is immature, impulsive, irrational, and unconscious
○ like a newborn baby
○ other parts of psyche develop to control and channel the id’s destructive energy
Pleasure Principle- the immediate and uninhibited seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of discomfort
○ this is what the id operates on

b. The Ego
●The rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the superego
○ responsible for planning, problem solving, reasoning, and controlling the id
○ resides in the conscious and preconscious
○ corresponds to the self-our conscious identity of ourselves as persons
○ one task is to channel and release the id’s energy in ways that are compatible with the external environment
○ operates on the reality principle

Reality Principle- the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and superego and the realities of the environment
c. The Superego
●The part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality
○ made up of a set of ethical standards or rules for behavior
○ resides in the preconscious and unconscious
○ it operates on morality principle
○ constantly strives for protection

Morality Principle- the principle on which the superego may operate, which results in feelings of guilt if its rules are violated
○ Example: the desire to cheat with the hope of getting a better grade comes from your id. The guilt and conscious that stops you from cheating comes from your superego.

3. Defense Mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms- the ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality
Repression- Freud’s first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness

Defense Mechanism
Description
Example
Repression
Preventing painful or unacceptable thoughts from entering consciousness
Forgetting the details of your parent’s painful death
Sublimation
Redirecting unmet desires or unacceptable impulses into acceptable activities
Rechanneling sexual desires into school, work, art, sports, hobbies that are constructive
Denial
Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it
Alcoholics refusing to admit their addiction
Rationalization
Substituting socially acceptable reasons for unacceptable ones
Justifying cheating on an exam by saying “everyone else does it”
Intellectualization
Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words, or ideas
Emotionless discussion of your divorce while ignoring underlying pain
Projection
Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives, or impulses to others
Becoming unreasonably jealous of you mate while denying your own attraction to others
Reaction Formation
Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges, thoughts, or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state
Promoting a petition against adult bookstores even though you are secretly fascinated by pornography
Regression
Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development
Throwing a temper tantrum when a friend doesn’t like to do what you’d like
Displacement
Redirecting impulses toward a less threatening person or object
Yelling at a coworker after being criticized by your boss

4. Psychosexual Stages of Development
Psychosexual Stages- in Freudian theory, five developmental periods during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
○ psychosexual reflects Freud’s emphasis on infantile sexuality
infantile sexuality is Freud’s belief that children experience sexual feelings from birth
○ if a child’s needs are not met, or are overindulged, at one particular stage, the child may fixate and a part of the personality will remain stuck at that stage
Oedipus Complex- period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent
Penis envy: when a young girl discovers that she lacks a penis and develops hostile feelings toward the mother, who she blames for the anatomical “deficiency”. This is a concept of Freud that reflected a women’s feelings of cultural inferiority, not biological inferiority. According to Horney the appropriate term should be power envy.


PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES CHART
Name of Stage (Approximate Age)
Erogenous Zone (Key Conflict or Developmental Task)
Oral (0 - 18 months)
Mouth (weaning from breast or bottle)
Anal (18 months - 3 years)
Anus (toilet training)
Phallic (3 - 6 years)
Genitals (overcoming the Oedipus Complex by identifying with same-sex parent)
Latency (6 years - puberty)
None (interacting with same-sex peers)
Genital (puberty - adult)
Genitals (establishing intimate relationships with the opposite sex)

O. A. P. L. G

Overbearing
Allows
Parents
Leadership
Gratification

B. Neo-Freudian/Psychodynamic Theories: Revising Freud’s Ideas

○ Alder’s Individual Psychology
■1. Neo-Freudian- student of Freud, revised his ideas.
■2. Alder’s theory of individual psychology, the individuals goals in life provide the source of our motivation.
■3. inferiority complex- Alder’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence
● * i.e. you feel self conscience or “inferior”
● Alder believes we feel this way because we begin our life as helpless infants
■4. Will-to-power could happen through social interests - we identify with others and cooperate for the social good

○ Jung’s Analytical Psychology
■1. Carl Jung developed analytical psychology- emphasized unconscious processes
■2. Believed in 2 types of the unconscious mind:
collective unconscious- a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share
archtypes- the collective unconscious consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior
● gender roles under archtypes: anima, the feminine characteristics... and animus, the masculine characteristics

○ Horney, Freud, and Penis Envy
■Horney - believed that male-female differences were largely based off of social and cultural factors
● believed in power envy- thought what really were envious was the power that man had
■Horney believed that if children did not grow up with loving and nurturing parents, their needs were not met, therefore they experiences helplessness
basic anxiety- the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment
■3 basic ways to search for security:
● 1. seeking affection and acceptance from others by moving toward them.
● 2. strive for independence, privacy, and self-reliance by moving away from people.
● 3. trying to gain control and power over others by moving against people
■emotional balance: you need a balance of all three security factors

C. Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories: Criticisms and Enduring Influence

● 5 major Criticisms:
○ 1. Difficult to test- it is hard to empirically test psychoanalytic theory
○ 2. Over emphasis on biology and unconscious forces- Freud failed to include cultural and attention to learning factors in his theories
○ 3. Inadequate empirical support- had subjective data because he mostly studied case history studies of his adult patients. His patients were mostly upper class Viennese women.
○ 4. Sexism- Freud is considered sexist or derogatory toward women which provide another example for his bias
○ 5. Lack of cross-cultural support


III. HUMANISTIC THEORIES

A. Roger’s Theory: The Importance of the Self
● To Rogers, the most important part of personality is the self:
self-concept- Roger’s term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior
*very important to have self concept and experience match = congruence


psy.jpg


(Person-Centered Counseling)

● Mental Health, Congruence, and Self-Esteem
○ 1. The more we are in congruence, the higher our self-esteem and better mental health
○ 2. Everyone has an inborn drive to fulling themselves and reaching highest mental health
○ 3. Roger’s belief for people with low self-esteem: early childhood experiences lead them to believe those who love them only do conditionally, in other words, parents do not always show their children they love them, only on certain conditions. This distorts a child’s self-esteem.

● Unconditional Positive Regard
○ 1. unconditional positive regard- Rogers’s term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
○ 2. conditional positive regard- positive contigent on behaving in a certain way
○ 3. If people feel this, they feel accepted
○ 4. This type of regard is accepting others positive nature, while rejecting their negative nature

B. Maslow’s Theory: The Search for Self-Actualization
- Personality is the quest to fulfill basic physiological needs and then move upward toward the highest level of self-actualization
i. What exactly is self-actualization?
- self-actualization is the inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and capacities.
- It is an ongoing process of growth rather than an end product or accomplishment
C. Evaluating Humanistic Theories: Three Major Criticisms
1. Naive assumptions - humanists are unrealistic, romantic, and even naive about human nature.

2. Poor testability and inadequate evidence - humanistic concepts are difficult to define operationally and test scientifically.

3. Narrowness - humanistic theories have been criticized for merely describing personality, rather than explaining it.

III. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORIES

A. Bandura’s and Rotter’s Approaches: Social Learning Plus Cognitive Processes

1. Bandura’s Self-Efficiancy and Reciprocal Determinism

- Cognition is central to Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy, which refers to a person’s learned expectation of success.
- If you have a strong sense of self-efficacy, you believe you can generally succeed, regardless of past failures and current obstacles.
a. Doesn’t such a belief also affect how others respond to you and thereby affect your chance for success?
- This type of mutual interaction and influence is a core part of reciprocal determinism.
- Our cognitions, behaviors, and the environment are interdependent and interactive.
2. Rotter’s Locus of Control

- Rotter believes that prior learning experiences create cognitive expectancies that guide behavior and influence the environment.
- Personality is determined by:
i. what you expect to happen following a specific action
ii. the reinforcement value attached to specific outcomes
- Rotter might use personality tests that measure your internal versus external locus of control
- People get asked “true” or “false” statements.
- People with external locus of control think environment and external forces have primary control over their lives. They are more likely to believe in bad luck or fate. They feel
powerless to change their circumstances and are less likely
to make healthy changes, follow treatment programs, or
positively cope with a situation.
- internals think they can control events in their lives through their own efforts.

B. Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theory: The Pluses and Minuses

- Social cognitive perspective:
i. emphasizes how environment affects individuals.
ii. it meets most standards for scientific research.
ii. it offers testable objective hypotheses and operationally defined terms and relies on empirical data for its basic principles.
- Critics think the theory is too narrow and that it ignores unconscious and emotional aspects of personality.
- Long way from biological perspective

III. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES

A. Three Major Contributors: The Brain, Neurochemistry, and Genetics
- biological theories of personality focus on the brain, neurochemistry, and genetics.

1. The Brain
- Modern biological research also suggests that activity in certain brain areas may contribute to some personality traits.
- Damage to one structure tends to have wide-ranging effects.

2. Neurochemistry
- Found a consistent relationship between sensation seeking and monoamine oxidase.
- Dopamine also seems to be correlated with novelty seeking and extroversion.
- High sensation seekers and extroverts tend to have lower levels of physiological arousal than introverts.
- may be inherited

3. Genetics
- behavioral genetics attempts to determine the extent to which behavioral differences among people are due to genetics as opposed to environment.
- genetic factors contribute about 40 to 50 percent of personality.
- parents’ traits correlate moderately with those of their biological children and very little with those of their adopted children.
- “genetic determinism” could be misused to “prove” that an ethnic or racial group is inferior, that male dominance is natural, etc.

- Somatotype Theory:
● William Sheldon
Endomorphs (Fat)
○ friendly and outgoing
Mesomorphs (Muscular)
○ aggressive
Ectomorphs (Thin)
○ shy and secretive
psych.jpg
(John Goodman, Sylvester Stallone, Kate Moss)

B. The Biopsychosocial Model: Integrating the Perspectives
- biopsychosocial - the idea that several factors overlap in their contributions to personality.
- Leading person:
- Hans Eysenck (1990)
- believes that certain traits may reflect inherited patterns of cortical arousal.
- the biopsychosocial model is reflected in a growing number of books and articles

IV. PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT

● phrenologist - shows how personality is assesed.
● Psychologists use numerous methods and battery (or series of tests to asses personality.)

○ Interviews
■Ask structured-specific question.
Objective example: Tell me a time when you demonstrated leadership?
■Unstuctured - able to expand.
Example: Expand on what you were saying about your project at work. (This is not structured beforehand).
○ Observations
■looks for example of behavior and follow set of evaluation guidelines.
■psychologist might arrange to observe client’s interactions with family.
● Does he seem passive when asked question.
● Does he seem uneasy around family?

○ Objective Tests
■inventories - standarized questions that require written responses.
■answers to typically true/false questions let people “self-report” objective because limited number of answers.
■empirical standards for construct test items and scoring.
■administered by many people in short period oftitme.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - most widely researched and clinically self-report personality test. 500 statements with true, false, can’t say.
Example: My stomach frequently bothers me.
■Subscales of the MMPI-2.
● Validity Scale
○ L (lie) - Denies common problems, projects a “saintly” or false picture.
○ F (confusion) answers are contradictory
○ K (defensivenss) - minimize social and emotional complaints
○ ? (can’t say) - many items left unanswered
■clinical scales - different disorder depressed score high
■validity scales - detect who many be faking psychological disturbance or trying to appear pyschologicaly healthy
■aptitude test - measure potential abilities
■achievement tests - measure what you have already learned

○ Projective Techniques
Projective Tests - use ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or drawings which allow test taker to project his or her unconscious unto test material.
Rorschach Inkblot Test- A projective test that presents a set of 10 cards with symmetrical abstract patterns and asks respondents to describe what they “see” in the image
● their response is thought to be a projection of unconscious processes.
● Introduced 1921 by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorsecahcs 20 inkblots.
● orignally developed by spilling ink on paper and folding paper in hand.
● Response by gesture, reaction.
Thematic Perception Test- A projective test that shows a series of ambiguous black-and-white pictures and ask the test-taker to create a story related to each
● the responses presumably reflect a projection of unconscious processes
Untitled1.jpg

Thematic Perception Test: What is the man thinking? (Self-Report).


○ Are Personality Measurements Accurate? Evaluating the Methods
Interview/observation
● provide insight on personality but time-consuming and expensive. like football. disagree.
Objective tests
● Deliberate deception and social desirability biased
○ some items on self-report inventories easy “see through” respondents may intentionally fake particular personality traits.
○ want to be socially desirable - validity scales of MMPI prevent these problems
● Diagnostic difficulties
○ when self-report inventories are used for diagnosis, overlapping sometimes makes it difficult to pinpoint diagnosis.
○ clients with severe disorders sometimes score within normal range, and normal clients score in elevated range.
● Possible cultural bias and inappropriate use
○ critics think that standards for ‘normal” on objective self-report tests fail to recognize impact on culture.
○ Latinos score higher then respondents from North Americans on masculinity femininity scale of MMPH 2 these groups score higher reflect adherence to traditional gender roles and cultural training more than individual personality traits.
Projective tests
● Con: time-consuming to administer and interpret. No right or wrong answers respondent less able to fake responses.
● Pro: willing talk about anxiety topics.
reliability - are results consistent?
validity - Does the test measure what it’s designed to measure?
■Rorschach problem
● client’s response depend on subjective judgement on examiner.
● some examiners more experienced than others
interrater reliability - two examiners may interpret same response in very different ways.
Collectivist Cultures- The needs and goals of the group are emphasizes over the needs and goals of the individual.

Untitled2.jpg
Example: Beijing Olympics opening drum performance. After noticing how each player moved at exactly the same time, more people were amazed and slightly scared at what the Chinese could do. (China).
Individualistic Cultures- The needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
Barnum effect - Pseudo personality descriptions and horoscope predictions are often accepted because we think they are accurate. believe that they tapped into our unique selves. but they are broad statements that fit to anyone.
Self-serving bias - traits generally positive and faltering. Prefers information that maintain positive self-image. ex. pop horoscopes.

Pop Horoscope Match Example: You are fun, easy-going, and hate sticking to the norm. Therefore your celebrity date is Justin Beiber.
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Problem: Barnum effect: Many people can consider theirselves as “fun and easy-going.” (Justin Beiber).
Barnum effect - offer something for everyone. pay attention to what confirm expectations





Important People

Gordon Allport - Arranged traits into a hierarchy. The most important traits were listed at the top while the least important were placed on the bottom. Criticisms of trait theories include “Lack of explanation” meaning that they are good at describing personality, but it is difficult to explain why people develop these traits across cultures. “Lack of specificity” meaning that personal stability stays after the age 30. But they still haven’t determined which characteristics stay throughout a lifetime, and which ones change. “Ignoring situational effects” means that trait theorists have been criticized for not dealing with the importance of both environmental and situational effects. In 1937, he published “Personality A Psychological Interpretation” and was named the father of modern personality theory.

Raymond Cattell: Early trait theorist. Reduced the wide array of possible personality traits with a statistical technique called factor analysis. With this he condensed the list of traits to 30-35 characteristics.

Hans Eysenck - reduced the list by describing personality as a relationship among three basic types of traits including extroversion, introversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Neuroticism is related to feelings of insecurity, guilt, moodiness, and anxiety. He created the “Eysenck Personality Questionnaire” which uses factor analysis to determine one’s traits. Believes that certain traits (like introversion and extroversion) may reflect inherited patterns of cortical arousal, as well as social learning, cognitive processes, and the environment. Eysenck’s work exemplifies how trait, biological, and social-cognitive theories can be combined to provide better insight into personality. Integration and the biopsychosocial model.

David Buss - and his colleagues found a strong relationship between their survey results and the five-factor model. This can be considered as an evolutionary advantage to people who are more extroverted, agreeable, open, conscientious, and less neurotic.

Alfred Adler - Neo-Freudian. Believed that behavior was purposeful and goal directed. Created the concept of ‘“individual psychology” where goals in life provide a source of motivation. Goals that aim towards gaining security and overcoming feelings of inferiority provide more motivation as well. Created the Inferiority Complex, which is his idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence. In the “will-to-power” concept, children strive to develop superiority over others, and get to their full potential.

Freud - He came up with four major key concepts: Levels of consciousness, personality structure, defense mechanisms, and psychosexual stages of development. The three levels of consciousness are the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious. Freud believed personality was composed of three interacting mental structures: id, ego, and superego. The defense mechanisms that he came up with were the ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality: repression, sublimation, denial, rationalization, intellectualization, projection, reaction formation, regression, and displacement. The psychosexual stages of development include: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Penis envy- reflected women’s feelings of cultural inferiority.

Carl Jung - Neo-Freudian. He developed analytical psychology and emphasized unconscious processes. He said that the unconscious contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and aggressive forces. He came up with the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious consists of primitive images and patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior that Jung called archetypes. He said that both males and females have patterns for feminine aspects of personality (anima) and masculine aspects (animus)

Karen Horney - Neo-Freudian. She said that male-female differences were largely the result of social cultural factos. She claimed that Freud’s concept of penis envy should actually be called power envy. Basic anxiety (feelings of helplessness that adults experience because of childhood) greatly determines emotional health. Searching for security: we can move toward people, we can move away from people, or we can move against people.

Carl Rogers - Humanist that said that the most important component of personality is the self. Self-concept: term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior. He is concerned with the match between a person’s self-concept and his or her actual experiences with life. If our self-concept is reasonably consistent with out actual life experiences, our “self” is said to be congruent and we are well adjusted. The reverse is true when there is incongruity and little overlap.

Abraham Maslow - Humanist that believed there is a basic goodness to human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization. He saw personality as the quest to fulfill basic physiological needs and then move upward toward the highest level of self-actualization. Self actualization is the inborn dive to develop all one’s talents and ca
pacities.

Albert Bandura - Social Cognitive theorist. Cognition is central to his concept of self-efficacy which refers to a person’s learned expectation of success. If you have a strong sense of self-efficacy, you believe you can generally succeed, regardless of past failures and current obstacles. Reciprocal determinism: According to Bandura, our cognitions (or thoughts), behaviors, and the environment are interdependent and interactive.

Julian Rotter - similar to Bandura. He said prior learning experiences create cognitive expectancies that guide behavior and influence the environment. He said your behavior or personality i s determined by what you expect to happen following a specific action and the reinforcement value attached to specific outcomes. Measuring your internal vs. external locus of control: asking true or false questions to a series of statements. External locus of control: think environment and external fores have primary control over their lives. Internal locus of control: think they can control events in their lives through their own efforts.

Hermann Rorschach - The Rorschach Inkblot Test (Projective tests) introduced in 1921 by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, consists of 10 inkblots. Developed by spilling ink on paper and folding the paper in half. You are asked to report what you see in each card. A clinician interpret your answer as an indication of your unconscious feelings and conflicts.


Five Interesting Facts
1. Freud developed the three levels of consciousness that are still used today:
Conscious-thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering.
Preconscious-thoughts, motives, or memories that can voluntarily be brought to mind.
Unconscious-thoughts, motives, and memories blocked from normal awareness. (Huffman)

2. Pets and Personality
Studies show, contrary to many skeptics, that animals indeed have personality traits that pet owners and strangers alike can pick up on and agree with. Dr. Roger Fouts studied primates and concluded that they had many traits similar to humans such as nurturing. Although many animals, like dogs for example, can have human qualities like being affectionate or aggressive, other species are harder to detect. The ability to identify human personalities in animals depends on the species (Huffman).

3. Five Personality Traits of Tom Cruise, Paris Hilton and Michel Jackson
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vm2vafSHf_U&feature=related

4. "Art Imitates Life"
The Disney classic, "The Little Mermaid" shows the promotes the Oedipus complex since Ariel's mother isn't present in the film. Many other Disney films such as "Aladdin," "Pocohantas," and "Beauty and the Beast" feature main female characters who were raised by their fathers. According to Freud's theory, this could have emphasized a daughter's attraction to her father and rivalry with her mother (Huffman, 471).

5. The “Big Five” Personality Traits
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOKZYXySlfw



Work Cited
Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action. Hoboken NJ: J. Wiley, 2007. Print**