VOCABULARY

1. Trait-Relatively stable personal characteristic that can be used to describe someone.
2. Personality- Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions.
3. Factor Analysis-Statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data.
4. Five-Factor Model- Trait theory of personality that includes Openness: people who rate highly in this factor are original, imaginative and curious.
Conscientiousness: These people are responsible, self-disciplined, organized and achieving.
Extroversion: these people are sociable, outgoing, talkative, fun loving and passionate.
Agreeableness: These people are good-natured, ward, gentle and cooperative.
Neuroticism: These people are unstable, prone to insecurity, anxiety, guilt and worry.
5. Conscious- In Freudian terms, thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering.
6. Preconscious- Freud’s term for thoughts, motives or memories that can voluntarily be brought to mind.
7. Unconscious- Freud’s term for thoughts, motives and memories blocked from normal awareness.
8. Pleasure Principle-In Freud’s theory, the principle on which the id operates which seeks immediate pleasure.
9. Ego-In Freud’s theory, the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the superego; from the Latin term ego, meaning “I.”
10. Reality Principle-According to Freud, the principle on which the conscious ego operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and superego and the realities of the environment.
11. Superego- In Freud’s theory, the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality.
12. Morality Principle-The principle on which the superego may operate, which results in feelings of guilt if its rules are violated.
13. Defense Mechanisms-The Freudian theory, the ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality. The different types of mechanisms are numbers 14-22.
14. Repression-Freud’s first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness.
15. Sublimation-Redirecting unmet desires or unacceptable impulses into acceptable activities.
16. Denial- Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it.
17. Rationalization- Substituting socially acceptable reasons for unacceptable ones.
18. Intellectualization-Ignoring emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words or ideas.
19. Projection- Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives, or impulses to others.
20. Reaction Formation- Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges, thoughts, or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state.
21. Regression- Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age of level of development.
22. Displacement- Redirecting impulses toward a less threatening person or object.
23. Psychosexual Stages- In Freudian theory, five developmental periods, during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally.
Oral: From ages 0-18 months with conflict of weaning from the breast or the bottle.
Anal: From ages 18 months to 3 years, which involves the conflict of toilet training.
Phallic: From ages 3 to 6 years old, which involves overcoming the Oedipus Complex by identifying with same-sex parent.
Latency: From ages 6 years to puberty, which involves interacting with same-sex peers.
Genital- From puberty to adult, which involves establishing intimate relationships with the opposite sex.
24. Oedipus Complex- Period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same-sex parent.
25. Inferiority Complex- Adler’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence.
26. Collective Unconscious- Jung’s concept of a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share.
27. Archetypes- According to Jung, the images and patterns of thoughts, feelings and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious.
28. Basic Anxiety- According to Horney, the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment.
29. Self-Concept- Rogers term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities and behavior.
30. Unconditional Positive Regard- Roger’s term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached.
31. Conditional Positive Regard-
32. Self-Actualization- Maslow’s term for the unborn drive to develop all ones talents and capabilities
33. Self-Efficacy- Bandura’s term for a persons learned expectation of success.
34. Reciprocal Determinism- Bandura’s belief that cognitions, behaviors and the environment interact to produce personality.
35. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- The most widely researched and clinically used self-report personality test.
36. Projective Tests- Psychological tests using ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots of drawings, which allow the test taker to project his or her in unconscious onto the test material.
37. Rorchach Inkblot Test- A projective test that presents a set of ten cards with symmetrical abstract patterns, known as inkblots, and ask respondents to describe what they see in the image; their response is thought to be a projection of unconscious processes.
38. Thematic Apperception Test- A projective test that shows a series of ambiguous black-and-white pictures and asks the test-taker to create a story related to each; the responses presumably reflect a projection of unconscious processes.
39. Individualistic Cultures- The needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group.
40. Collectivistic Cultures- The needs and goals of the group are emphasized over the needs and goals of the individual.
41. Early Trait Theorists- Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell and Hans Eyesenck put the long list of personality traits into sections of hierarchies.
42. Psychoanalytic Theories- Are theories of personality that attempt to explain individual differences by examining how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings and actions.
43. Psyche- Is believed to function on three different levels of awareness or consciousness.
44. Psychoanalysis- A type of therapy designed for indentifying and resolving problems stored in the unconscious.
45. Id-According to Freud is the source of instinctual energy, which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification.
46. Rationalization- A type of defense mechanism, which includes superegos and id’s by distorting reality.
47. Infantile Sexuality- Freud’s belief that children experience sexual feelings from birth.
48. Social Interest- Identifying with others and cooperating with them for the social good.
49. Power Envy (Penis Envy)-Karen Horney’s belief that the appropriate term for penis envy is power envy.
50. Criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Theories-
1. Difficulty to test
2. Overemphasis on biology and unconscious forces
3. Inadequate empirical support
4. Sexism
5. Lack of cross-cultural support
51. Humanistic Theories Criticism- Naive assumption, Poor testability and narrowness.
52. Cognitive Expectancies- We have them prior to learning experiences, according to Bandura, that guide behavior and influence the environment.
53. Internal Locus of Control- Believe that they can control events in their lives through their own efforts.
54. External Locus of Control- People with this believe that environment and external forces have primary control over their lives.
55. Biological Theories- Of personality focus on the brain, neurochemistry and genetics.
56. Phrenologist- A person who will assess your personality.
57. Inventories- Standardized questionnaires that require written responses.
58. Real vs. Ideal Self- According to Carl Rodgers, your ‘Real Self’ is who you actually are, while your ‘Ideal Self’ is the person you want to be.
59. Endomorphs- Are classified as being round and normally have small limbs and small hands and feet.
60. Mesomorphs- Is a body type that is generally an athletic body build and have the ability to create a perfect physique.
61. Ectomorphs- Is a body type that is generally very thin, with small shoulders and flat chests.
62. Inferiority Complex- Adler’s idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence.

OUTLINE

I. Introduction/Trait Theories

A. Personality- an individual’s unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts,
feelings and actions.
1. Personality researchers seek to:
a) Describe
b) Predict
c) Explain
2. Five Most Prominent Theories/Findings in personality research:
a) Trait
b) Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
c) Humanistic
d) Social-cognitive
e) Biological

B. Traits- stable personal characteristics used to describe someone.
1. Trait Theorists
a) Allport, Cattell, and Eyesenck
b) Cattell & Eyesenck used factor analysis (a method of reducing a wide
array of personality traits)

C. The Five Factor Model
1. (O): Openness: those who are original and open to new ideas
2. (C): Conscientiousness: responsible and organized
3. (E): Extroversion: sociable and talkative
4. (A): Agreeableness: trusting and good-natured
5. (N): Neuroticism: emotionally unstable and moody

D. Pros and Cons of Trait Theories
1. Pro: Describes and organizes trait personalities using few traits
2. Cons: Lacks explanation, specificity, and ignores situational effects

II. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories

A. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Four Key Concepts
1. Levels of Consciousness (Psyche = the mind)
a) Conscious- first level of awareness; all thoughts we are aware
of/remember
b) Pre-conscious- second level; thoughts we can readily remember; we
are not aware of these thoughts
c) Unconscious- third level; stores our primitive, instinctual motives, and
memories blocked from normal awareness.

2. Personality Structure
a) Id- the source of instinctual energy; our hidden true animalistic wants
and desires
Ex: The devil on the left side of your shoulder in
cartoons, the bad choice of the scenario
1) Pleasure principle – the id works on this; the immediate and
uninhibited seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of discomfort.
b) Ego- develops after the Id; in our conscious; rational part of the psyche
that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the
superego.
Ex: The person in the middle of the angle and devil, the
one who tries to solve everything; mediator
2) Reality principle- the principle on which the conscious ego
operates as it tries to meet the demands of the id and the
superego and the realities of the environment.
c) Superego- part of the personality that incorporates parental and
societal standards for morality; conscience.
Ex: The angel on the right shoulder you see in cartoons
3) Morality principle – results in feelings of guilt if its rules are
violated.



3. Defense Mechanisms

a) Repression- preventing painful or unacceptable thoughts; ex:
Forgetting the details of a bad breakup
b) Sublimation- Redirecting unacceptable impulses into acceptable
activities; ex: Rechanneling the anger or sadness into exercising
c) Denial- refusing to perceive reality; ex: Convinced your boyfriend
still has feelings for you when he has clearly moved on
d) Rationalization- substituting socially acceptable reasons for
unacceptable ones; ex: “Everyone” has sex in high school.
e) Intellectualization- Ignoring aspects of a painful experience, by
focusing on something else; ex: Emotionless discussion of your
breakup, while ignoring the pain within.
f) Projection- Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives, or impulses
to others; ex: Being jealous of your boyfriend while denying your
attraction to someone else.
g) Reaction formation- refusal to acknowledge urges by exaggerating
the other side; ex: Expressing disgust to those who have sex before
marriage, but you still have sex with your boyfriend.
h) Regression- Responding to a threatening situation immaturely; ex:
When your mom tells you you can’t take the car, you start to
throw a tantrum
i) Displacement- Redirecting impulses towards a less threatening object
or person; ex: Yelling at your brother when your mom just got
mad at you.

4. Psychosexual Stages of Development

(psychosexual stages occur during the first 12 years of age)
a) Oral- 0-18 months; mouth
b) Anal- 18 months- 3 yrs.; Toilet training
c) Phallic – 3-6 years; Identifying with same sex parent
1. Oedipus complex - ex: Child has a longing for mother and
jealousy toward the father
d) Latency- 6 years to puberty
e) Genital- Puberty-adult; est. intimate relationship with opposite sex
parent

B. Neo-Freudian/ Psychodynamic Theories
1. Neo-Freudians: Adler, Jung, Horney
a) Adler- individual psychology; inferiority complex- deep feelings of
inadequacy from childhood
b) Jung -Two forms of unconscious mind: personal and collective
- Collective unconscious: a reservoir of inherited, universal
experiences that all humans share. (Archetypes)
c) Horney- Personality development; basic anxiety- feelings of
Helplessness and insecurity that adults experience.
2. Evaluations of the Psychoanalytic Theories
a) Difficult to test, overemphasis on biology and unconscious forces,
inadequate empirical support, sexism, lack of cross-cultural support.

III. Humanistic Theories

A. Rogers’s Theory: The Importance of Self

- Self concept: all the information and beliefs individuals have about their
own nature, qualities, and behavior.
1. Mental Health, Congruence, and Self-Esteem
a) Mental health is related to the degree of the congruence between the
self-concept and life experiences

2. Key Terms:
a) Conditional positive regard – positive behavior toward person
behaving in a certain way.
b) Unconditional positive regard – positive behavior toward a
person with no contingencies attached.

B. Maslow
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
*Self-actualization: the inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and
capacities

C. Three Criticisms of Humanistic Theories
1. Naïve Assumptions
2. Poor testability
3. Narrowness

IV. Social Cognitive Theories

A. Albert Bandura

1. Self-efficacy – a person’s learned expectation of success (cognition is
central).
Ex: Self defense classes help those believe in themselves when in a
situation of an attack.


2. Reciprocal Determinism- Belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the
environment interact to produce personality.
B. Julian Rotter
1. Behavior or personality is determined by:
a) What you expect to happen
b) Reinforcement value attached to outcomes


C. Evaluating Social Cognitive Theories

1. Pros: Environment affects; meets scientific research standards; testable
2. Cons: Too narrow, ignoring unconscious and emotional aspects of
personality.

V. Biological Theories

A. Three Major Contributors to Personality

1. Brain Structure
a) issue: identifying specific structures associated with personality
2. Neurochemistry
b) explanation of the relationship between sensation seeking and
monoamine oxidase.
3. Genetics

VI. Personality Assessment

A. Four Methods to Measure Personality

1. Interviews
a) Structured-specific questions
*Objective EXAMPLE: Tell me a time when you demonstrated
leadership?
b) Unstructured – able to expand/ open-ended
2. Observations
a) Structured: checklists, tally marks, lists, etc.
b) Unstructured: write down all observations without organization
3. Objective Tests
a) MMPI – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (500
statements)
4. Projective Tests
a) Rorschach Inkblot Test, TAT

VII. Evalutating the Personality Methods

A. Interviews and Observations

· Pro: insights
· Son: Time consuming and expensive; can disagree in evaluation
B. Projective Tests
· Pro: insights
· Cons: low reliability and validity
C. Objective Tests
· Pro: standardized information; can be given to large groups
· Cons: possible deliberate deception, social desirability bias, diagnostic difficulties, possible cultural bis, and inappropriate use.
D. Barnum Effect
a) People have the tendency to see themselves in a vague, stock
descriptions of personality

IMPORTANT PEOPLE


Gordon Allport
* Believed the best way to understand personality was to study an individual and then arrange his or her unique personality traits into a hierarchy
> The most important and persuasive traits were listed at the top and the least important were listed at the bottom
* He felt that our personality was made up of traits and that traits are highly individualized or unique
* Most researchers agree we have the same traits in different degrees

Raymond Cattell
* Factor analysis
* Condensed the list of traits to 30-35 basic characteristics of personality
* Well-known for his 16 Personality Factors, in which he and his colleagues used factor analysis to identify 16 different fundamental components of personality
* He saw traits as important units of personality that have predictive value
* Cattell placed 16 source traits on a continuum, with extremes at either end, and completes their own personality profile
* Criticized for inability of replication because calculations done by hand

Hans Eysenck
* Factor analysis
* Described personality as a relationship among 3 basic types of traits- extroversion/extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
* Believed certain traits may reflect inherited patterns of cortical arousal, social learning, cognitive processes and the environment
* Criticism: Eysenck could use more clarification or elaboration

Alfred Adler
* Neo-Freudian
* Believed behavior is purposeful and goal-directed and that each of us has the ability to choose and create
* Individual psychology- one’s goals in life provide the source of their motivation
* Believed everyone suffered from an inferiority complex (deep feelings of inadequacy that arise from childhood)
* Criticism: Whether or not his theory is scientific because psychology today is experimentally oriented-difficult to test

Carl Jung
* Neo-Freudian
* Developed analytical psychology-emphasized unconscious processes
* He believed the unconscious contains positive and spiritual motives as well as sexual and aggressive forces
* Believed we have a personal unconscious and a collective unconscious
* Archetypes (images and patterns of thoughts, feelings and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious)
* Criticism: He discusses an unconscious as well as talks about a collective unconscious that has never been and will never be conscious- difficult to test

Karen Horney
* Neo- Freudian
* Accepted much of Freudian theory, but added concepts of her own
* Believed that male-female differences were largely the result of social and cultural forces
* Penis envy should be called power envy
* Move toward people-seeking affection and acceptance from others; move away from people-striving for independence, privacy and self reliance
* Criticism: Sexism, lack of cross-cultural support, and difficulty to test

Sigmund Freud
* Levels of consciousness- conscious, pre-conscious, and unconscious
* Personality structure- id, ego, superego, pleasure principle, morality principle and reality principle
* Defense mechanisms (satisfying the ego by distorting reality)- Repression, sublimation, denial, rationalization, intellectualization, projection, reaction formation, regression, and displacement
* Psychosexual stages of development- five developmental periods (oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital) during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
* Criticism: difficult to test, inadequate empirical support and overemphasis on biology and unconscious forces

Carl Rogers
* Humanistic psychologist
* Believed the most important part of personality is self
* Self-concept- all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities and behavior
* Believed there is a connection among mental health, congruence and self-esteem
* Unconditional positive regard- Roger’s term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
* Criticism: Naïve assumptions, poor testability, and narrowness (not explaining personality, only describing it)

Abraham Maslow
* Humanistic Psychologist
* Believed there is a basic goodness to human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization
>Self-Actualization- term for inborn drive to develop all one’s talents and capabilities
* Maslow’s hierarchy of needs- basic physical necessities must be satisfied before higher-growth needs can be addressed
* Criticism: Naïve assumptions, poor testability, and narrowness (not explaining personality, only describing it)

Albert Bandura
* Social-cognitive theorist
* Self-efficacy- Bandura’s term for a person’s learned expectation of success
* Bandura believed that if you have a strong sense of self-efficacy, you believe you can generally succeed
* Criticism: too narrow; ignores unconscious and emotional aspects of personality

Julian Rotter
* Social-cognitive theorist
* Believes that prior learning experiences create cognitive expectancies that guide behavior and influence the environment
* Believes that your behavior or personality is determined by what you expect to happen following a specific action and the reinforcement value attached to specific outcomes
* Internal/ external locus of control
* Criticism: Ignores unconscious and emotional aspects of personality

Hermann Rorschach
*Created the Rorschach Inkblot Test which was a projective test that presents a set of forty cards with symmetrical abstract patterns, known as inkblots, and asks respondents to describe what they "see"in the image; their response is thought to be a projection of unconscious processes
*Criticisms: projective tests are very time-consuming to administer and interpret; there are no right or wrong answers; reliability and validity are among the lowest of all tests of personality

INTERESTING FACTS

1) Your Personality is Relatively Stable Throughout Your Life
-A person's personality remains relatively the same in their entire life. The traits that tend to stick are: anxiety level, eagerness, and friendliness


2)There are Five Distinct Personality Traits
-Those traits are: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness.

3) There are Numerous Factors that Contribute to Personality Disorder
-Those factors are: genetics, relationships with peers, high sensitivity, verbal abuse, and childhood trauma.

4) Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
-Maslow designed a pyramid that displayed the needs that humans go through to acheive self-awareness.
-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ka96Y0PkC1g&feature=related

5) Personality Test
-There are ways to test one's personality and this is one of them.
-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGIIernWlNs&feature=related

WORKS CITED


Cherry, Kendra. "Personality - 10 Fascinating Facts About Personality." Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. Web. 14 Apr. 2011. <http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/tp/facs-about-personality.htm>.Huffman, Karen. Psychology in Action. New York: Wiley, 1991. Print.