Chapter 14 Vocabulary

Abnormal Behavior - Patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms.

Insanity - Legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs, because of mental illness.

Medical Model - Perspective that assumes diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possible cured.

Psychiatry - Branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) - Classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors

Trait Disorders - long-running personality disturbances and mental retardation.

Neurosis- Outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems

Psychosis - Serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and loss of contact with reality

Anxiety disorder - Type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

• Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Persistent, uncontrollable, and free-floating anxiety

Panic Disorder - Sudden and inexplicable panic attacks; symptoms include difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom

Phobia - Intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder- Intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts (obsessions), urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions), or both.

Major Depressive Disorder- Long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life.

Bipolar Disorder- Repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression.

Learned Helplessness- Seligman’s term for a state of helplessness or resignation in which human or nonhuman animals learn that escape from something painful is impossible and depression results.

Schizophrenia- Group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations.

Hallucinations- Imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli.

Delusions- Mistaken beliefs based on a misrepresentations of reality

Dopamine Hypothesis- Theory that over activity of dopamine neurons may contribute to some forms of schizophrenia.

Substance-Related Disorders - Abuse of, or dependence on, a mood- or behavior- altering drug

Comorbidity - Co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism

• Dissociative Disorder - Amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from a splitting apart of experience from memory or consciousness

Dissociative Identity Order (DID) - Presence of two or more distinct personality systems in the same individual at different times; previously known as multiple personality disorder

Personality Disorders - Inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning

Antisocial Personality Disorder - Profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) - Impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image

Dissociative Fugue - a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversable amnesia for personal identity including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality

Dissociative Amnesia - a memory disorder characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress

Depersonalization Disorder - a dissociative disorder in which the sufferer is affected by persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization and/or derealization

Trephining- boring a hole in the skull to relieve pressure or release evil spirits to cure abnormal behavior. This was used during the Stone Age.

DSM-IV-TR- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors

Agoraphobia - being afraid of leaving your home and of being in busy, crowded areas.

Simple Phobia - a fear of a specific object or situation

Social Phobia - feeling extremely insecure in social situations and having an irrational fear of embarrassing themselves.

Somatization - converting depression into bodily complaints.

Word Salad - using phrases and words that are all jumbled together

Neologisms - artificial words

Delusions of Grandeur - believing your are someone very important

Delusions of Persecution - convinced that others are trying to get you

Delusions of Reference - unrelated events are given special significance

Cataleptic - when a person with schizophrenia assumes an uncomfortable position for an extended period

Waxy Flexibility - a tendency to maintain whatever posture is imposed on them

Chapter 14 Interesting Facts


•It affects 1 in 100 people worldwide
•People with schizophrenia are on average less violent than the general population. They are actually anxious and fearful of others. The misconception of mentally ill people being violent is brought on by Hollywood movies.
•It is a disease that often hits younger people in their prime, around ages 16-20
•25% of people with schizophrenia make a full recovery (What)

OCD Video:

Dissociative Identity Disorder Video:

"What Do You Know About Schizophrenia? - Fun Facts, Questions, Answers, Information." Fun Trivia Quizzes -World's Largest Trivia and Quiz Site! Web. 30 Mar. 2011. .

Chapter 14 Important People

Robert Nishimoto : found several culture-general symptoms that are useful in indentifying disorders by using data from three diverse groups: Anglo Americans, Vietnamese Chinese, and Mexicans. He also found several culture-bound symptoms.

Thomas Szasz : was a psychiatrist who was one of the most outspoken critics of the medical model. He believes it encourages people to believe they have no responsibility for an extended period. Says that mental illness is imposed a “myth” that labels individuals who are different or offensive to others.

David Rosenhan: Rosenhan and several colleagues admitted themselves to local mental hospitals and claimed to be hearing voices. After admission, they stopped their claims to see how long it would take the staff to realize they were not mentally ill. Doctors never found out but other patients could tell.

Philippe Pinel : French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patient’s .Developed the moral treatment. Made notable contributions to the classification of mental disorders. Described as “the father of modern psychiatry.

Martin Seligman : learned helplessness
•developed theory of depression
•says that when human or nonhuman is repeatedly subjected to pain that they cannot escape, which leads to the development of a strong sense of helplessness or resignation that they do not attempt to escape future painful experiences
•suggests that our general societal emphasis on them individualism and less involvement with others makes us particularly vulnerable to depression

Chapter 14 Outline

I. Identifying Abnormal Behavior: Four Basic Standards
A. Many times people do not fall into extreme cases
B. Abnormal Behavior : patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological (diseased or disordered) for one or more of the following reasons: Statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, and violation of norms.

a. Statistical Infrequency: How rare is the behavior?
i. A behavior that occurs infrequently in a given population
EX: believing that others are plotting against you
b. Disability or dysfunction: Is there a loss of normal functioning?
i. people will not get along with others, hold a job, eat properly, or clean themselves, can’t make rational decisions
ii. Common Disorders: substance-related disorder
c. Personal distress: Is the person unhappy?
i. Individual’s own judgment of his or her level of functioning
EX: someone who drinks heavily everyday may realize it is unhealthy and wish to stop, however people with true disorders deny they have a problem.
ii. Some serious disorders cause little to no emotional discomfort
EX: a serial killer can torture someone without feeling remorse or guilt
iii. Common Disorders: alcohol-dependence disorder
d. Violation of norms: Is the behavior culturally abnormal?
i. Social norms are cultural rules that guide behavior in particular situations
ii. Major problem: cultural diversity can affect what people consider a violation of norms
iii. Abnormal behavior is often culturally relative (only understood by that culture)
iv. Common Disorders: bipolar disorder
e. Insanity: the legal term indicating the person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions, or is judged incompetent to manage his or her own affairs, because of mental illness.
i. Case using the insanity plea: Andrea Yates (mother who killed her 5 children)

1. It was believed that she was mentally ill at the time she committed murder, yet she was still found guilty.
ii. The insanity plea often results in the defendant being committed to a mental hospital indefinitely-sometimes longer than a prison term.

II. Gender and Cultural Diversity
A. Avoiding Ethnocentrism : most research is done primarily in Western cultures
B. 12 culture-general symptoms of mental health: nervous, weak all over, feel apart and alone, worry all the time, trouble sleeping, personal worries, can’t get along, can’t do anything worthwhile, low spirits, restless, hot all over, nothing turns out right.

III. Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition to Science
A. Historically abnormal behavior was thought to be a result of evil spirits and possessions which resulted in trephining (boring holes in the skull to allow the spirits out)
B. Witchcraft was considered a mental illness and one would be put to death for it
C. Asylums: were created as a retreat for the mentally ill but later became inhumane until Philippe Pinel was put in charge of a Parisian asylum (1792)
D. Modern Times: Pinels idea that disturbed individuals had an underlying physical
illness predated medical model
E. medical model: is the perspective that assumes diseases including mental
ilness as having biological causes which gave rise to the specialty of
F. Thomas Szasz (a psychiatrist) believes the medical model encourages
people to believe they have no responsibility for their actions and
that they can find solutions in drugs, hospitalization and surgery
he believes mental ilness to be a myth and labels individuals who are
peculiar or offensive to others
G. David Rosenhan of Stanford University conducted a study illustrating
problems with diagnostic lables he had several colleagues present themselves to local mental hospitals complaining of hearing voices they were admitted with a diagnosis of
schizophrenia after admission they claimed of not hearing voices and acted normal however none of the staff recognized the change
H. Seven major perspectives in psychology
1. Sociocultural: problems reflect cultural values and beliefs
2. Behavioral: Inappropriate conditioning or modeling
3. Evolutionary: Exaggerated form of an adaptive reaction
4.Humanistic: Blocked personal growth
5. Psychoanalytic: Unconscious, unresolved conflict
6. Cognitive: Faulty thinking
7. Biological: Problems with brain function, genetic predisposition, biochemistry

IV. Classifying Abnormal Behavior: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV-TR
A. DSM-IV-TR: classification system developed by the APA used to describe abnormal behaviors
B. the text has had many revisions in the expansion of lists and disorders and changed the categories to reflect scientific research.
C. In previous additions Freud’s theories about anxiety disorders and neurosis have now been redistributed as anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, and dissociative disorders
i. Neurosis: outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems
ii. Psychosis: serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental distruption and loss of contact with reality.

EX: schizophrenia, some mood disorders, and some disorders due to medical conditions

D. Understanding the DSM: organized into 5 Axes
1. Axis I: state disorders, reflect a patient’s current condition
2. Axis II: trait disorders, long running personality disturbancesand mental retardation
3. Axis III: lists the medical conditions
4. Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental stressors
5. Axis V: evaluates a person’s overall level of functioning on a scale from 1-100
E. Evaluating the DSM
i. Critics say that it relies to heavily on the medical model and unfairly labels people and it has cultural bias.
ii. some would also prefer it to be described in terms of dimensions of traits or behaviors.

Anxiety Disorders

  • Anxiety disorders are problems associated with severe anxiety, such as phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder.

I. Four major types of anxiety disorders, all characterized by an unreasonable and often paralyzing anxiety or fear
a. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1. Characterized by chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive fear and worry that last at least six months and are not focused on any particular object or situation
2. Affects twice as many women as men
3. People with this disorder feel afraid of something but can’t articulate what that something is
4. May develop headaches, heart palpitations, dizziness, and insomnia
b. Panic Disorder
1. Marked by sudden and inexplicable attacks of intense apprehension that cause trembling and shaking, dizziness, and difficulty breathing
2. Panic attack: fear or discomfort that arises abruptly and peaks in 10 minutes or less
3. Most are a result of a passing crisis or severe stress

        • becomes a panic disorder when several apparently spontaneous panic attacks lead to a persistent concern about future attacks

c. Phobias
1. Involve a strong, irrational fear and avoidance of specific objects or situations
2. The strong fear response is elicited by a specific stimulus or situation

        • the specific stimulus or situation is often small or nonexistent and the person recognizes the fear as irrational
a. Agoraphobia
i. often develops following a panic attack
            1. anxiety about becoming trapped or helpless in a place or situation where escape is difficult or embarrassing

b. Simple Phobias

i. fear of a specific object or situation, such as needles, heights, rats, or spiders
            1. people with simple phobias have especially powerful imaginations

c. Social Phobias

i. feel extremely insecure in social situations and have an irrational fear of embarrassing themselves
            1. most common social phobias are a fear of public speaking or eating in public

d. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
1. Involves a persistent, unwanted fearful thoughts (obsessions) and/or irresistible urges to perform an act or repeat a ritual (compulsions).
2. Giving in to the compulsions helps relieve the anxiety created by the obsession
3. Equally common in men and women, however in children it is seen more in boys
II. Explaining Anxiety Disorders: Multiple Roots
a. Psychological
1. Faulty Cognitions

        • Certain thinking, or cognitive, habits make people with anxiety disorders prone to fear
        • tend to be constantly hypervigilant in order to locate any signs of danger
        • tend to magnify ordinary threats and failures

2. Maladaptive learning

        • Learning theorists believe that phobias and other anxiety disorders generally result from conditioning and social learning
        • Classical conditioning: a certain stimulus can become paired with a frightening event, and that then becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits anxiety
        • One problem with this theory is that most people can’t remember a specific instance that led to their fear
        • Social learning theorists also believe that some phobias result from modeling and imitation
          • ex. Parents that are always fearful and afraid of dogs and become overly protective of their children whenever dogs are around may cause their children later developing a similar fear of dogs

b. Biological

        • In a lab experiment, rhesus monkeys were shown spliced tapes that showed other monkeys experiencing extreme fear of a toy snake, a toy crocodile, a toy rabbit, and flowers
        • The viewing monkeys later were afraid of the toy snake and crocodile, but not the toy rabbit or flower
          • This may mean we have an evolutionary predisposition to fear what was dangerous to our ancestors

a. Anxiety disorders may also be due to a genetic predisposition, disrupted biochemistry, or unusual brain activity

c. Sociocultural
1. Some sociocultural influences on anxiety may include our fast-paced life with decreased job security, increased mobility, and lack of stable family support
2. Further support for sociocultural influences on anxiety disorders is that anxiety disorders can take dramatically different forms in other cultures

        • In Japan there is a very common type of social phobia called taijin kyofusho (TKS)
          • it is a morbid dread that you will do something to embarrass others
          • demonstrates how the differences between Western social phobias and TKS provide an example of how individualistic cultures emphasize the individual while collectivist cultures focus on others

Mood Disorders

  • Mood disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states.

I. Two main types of mood disorder:
a. Major Depressive Disorder
1. Major Depressive Disorder is a long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life.
2. People with Major Depressive Disorder experience a more intense sadness,
and many experience this mood without a specific trigger or precipitating event.
3. Clinically depressed people often have trouble sleeping, are likely to lose (or
gain) weight, have problems concentrating, have thoughts of suicide, and may
feel so fatigued that they cannot do everyday things
such as go to work, comb their hair, or brush
their teeth.
b. Bipolar Disorder
1. Bipolar Disorder is when a person experiences
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation
and hyperactivity) and depression.
2. Manic Episode:

      • The person is overly excited, extremely active,

easily distracted, exhibits unrealistically high
self-esteem, may not sleep for days at a time

yet does not become fatigued, thinking is sped up, and they exercise
poor judgment.

      • Lasts anywhere between a few days and a few months
      • Generally ends abruptly

3. Depressive Episode:
            • Lasts three times as long as the manic episode
            • The person’s previous manic mood is reversed

4. One of the most debilitating and lethal disorders, with a suicide rate between 10 and 20 percent

II. How Gender and Culture Affect Depression

a. Symptoms of Depression That Exist Across Cultures:
1. Frequent and intense sad affect
2. Decreased enjoyment
3. Anxiety
4. Difficulty in concentrating
5. Lack of energy

b. Some Culture-Specific Symptoms
1. Feelings of guilt are found more often in North America and Europe.
2. Somatization (converting depression into bodily complaints, ex: lack of sleep, neck pains) is more frequent in China and other parts of the world.

c. Women are more likely than men to suffer depressive symptoms. Why?
  • Biological Influences (ex: hormones, biochemistry, and genetic predisposition)
  • Psychological Processes (ex: ruminative thought processes)
  • Social Factors (ex: greater poverty, work-life conflicts, unhappy marriages, sexual or physical abuse)

*Biopsychosocial Model: model that combines the biological, psychological, and social factors. ex: According to this model, some women may inherit a genetic orhormonal predisposition

d. Depressive Behaviors of Men

  • Aggression
  • Impulsivity
  • Substance Abuse

* Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed to identify this type of male depressive syndrome.

III. Biological versus Psychosocial Factors
a. Biological Factors

    • Some patients with bipolar and depressive disorder show decreased gray matter and decreased overall functioning in the frontal lobes.
    • Imbalances of several neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrin, and dopamine (The drug lithium reduces or prevents manic episodes by preventing norepinephrin and serotonin sensitive neurons from being overstimulated.)
    • Major depressive disorders may be inherited (if one identical twin has a mood disorder, there is about a 50 percent chance that the other twin will also develop the illness.)
    • Evolutionary perspective suggests that moderate depression may be an adaptive response to a loss that helps up steep back and reassess our goals.

b. Psychosocial Theories
    • Psychoanalytic explanation: sees depression as anger turned inward against oneself when an important relationship or attachment is lost.
    • Humanistic View: depression results when a person’s self-concept is overly demanding or when positive growth is blocked.
    • Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression:

1. Martin Seligman demonstrated that when human or non human animals are repeatedly subjected to pain that they cannot escape, they develop such a strong sense of helplessness or resignation that they do not attempt to escape future painful experiences.
2. Attribution: once someone perceives that his or her behaviors are unrelated to outcomes, depression is likely to occur.

IV. Suicide (Quick Facts):

    • About 90 percent of people who are suicidal talk about their intentions.
    • Only about 3-5 percent of suicidal people truly intend to die.
    • Children of parents who attempt or commit suicide are at much greater risk of committing suicide as well.
    • Suicide rates are highest for people with major depressive disorders
    • While women are more likely to attempt suicide, men are more likely to commit suicide.
  • Group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
  • Is often so severe that it is considered a psychosis
    • the person is out of touch with reality
  • People with this disorder often have serious problems taking care of themselves, relating to others, and holding a job
  • Individual may withdraw from others and from reality
    • into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
  • Approximately 1/100 persons will develop schizophrenia in his or her lifetime
  • Approximately half of all people admitted to mental hospitals are diagnosed with this disorder
  • Usually emerges between the late teens and the mid-thirties
    • only prior to adolescence or after age 45
  • Equally prevalent in men and women

QUESTION: Is schizophrenia the same as “split or multiple personality”?

  • No!
  • Schizophrenia means “split mind”
    • Eugen Bleuler refers it to the fragmenting of thought processes and emotions found in schizophrenia disorders

I. Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Five Areas of Disturbance

  1. Perception
    1. senses of people suffering may be either enhanced or blunted
    2. the filtering and selection processes that allow most people to concentrate on whatever they choose are impaired
    3. hallucinations-imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli
      1. can occur in visual, tactile, olfactory senses
      2. auditory hallucinations are most common
d. people suffering may hurt others in response to their distorted internal experiences or the voices they hear
  1. Language and Thought
. can jump from topic to topic in mild disturbances
    1. severe disturbances, phrases and words are jumbled together
. can create their own words
b. Most common disturbance is lack of contact with reality
. psychosis
c. delusions- mistake beliefs based on misrepresentations of reality
. in delusion of reference, unrelated events are given special significance
  1. Emotion
. emotions can be exaggerated and fluctuate rapidly in inappropriate ways
    1. may become blunted or decreased in intensity
    2. flattened affect- almost no emotional response of any kind
  1. Behavior
. may take the form of unusual actions that have special meaning
    1. may also be side effects of the medication used to treat this disorder
    2. may become cataleptic
. assume an uncomfortale. nearly immobile stance for an extended period

    1. may have waxy flexibility
      1. a tendency to maintain whatever position is imposed on them
    2. These behaviors are often related to disturbances in perceptions, thoughts, and feelings

II. Types of Schizophrenia: Recent Methods of Classification
    1. Divided into:
      1. paranoid
      2. catatonic
      3. disorganized
      4. undifferentiated
      5. residual
    2. Critics say that these subtypes do not differentiate in terms of prognosis, etiology, or response to treatment
    3. Two classifications system of two groups of symptoms:
      1. Positive symptoms: additions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors
      2. negative symptoms: the loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors

III. Explaining Schizophrenia: Nature and Nurture Theoriesexternal image WkHJ5_B0zsTOIUaHzerUXHqDOzHuXqunzHKkJI4Wl9EcfccldoDRS5Mm9XHds62jSzKWA52GBCrCIFU0STchjbEHHo5sl8Jvt2dm8nsMQM2UWUgsCQ
A. Biological Theories
1. Some researchers suggest that prenatal viral infections, birth complications, immune responses, maternal malnutrition, and advanced paternal age all contribute to the development of schizophrenia
2. Most biological theories of schizophrenia focus on three main factors:
a. Genetics:
i. most studies are surrounded by twins and adoptions
ii. 48% risk for identical twins
iii. the risk increases with genetic similarity-- people who share more genes are more likely to develop the disorder
b. Neurotransmitters
i. predisposition toward a dopamine imbalance
ii. dopamine hypothesis--overactivity of certain dopamine neurons in the brain may contribute to some forms of schizophrenia
c. Brain abnormalities
i. abnormalities in brain function and structure
ii. people with the disorder have been found to have larger cerebral ventricles
iii. these abnormalities can be seen through MRIs and PET scans of the brain--show that some people with chronic schizophrenia tend to have a lower level of activity in the frontal and temporal lobes
B. Psychosocial Theories
1. Most psychologists believe there are at least two possible nonbiological contributors: stress and family communication
a. Stress
i. diathesis-stress model: people inherit a predisposition toward schizophrenia
ii. If they then experience more stress than they can handle, a schizophrenia episode may be triggered
b. Family Communication
i. some researchers believe that communication disorders in parents and family members may be a predisposing factor for schizophrenia
ii. disorders include unintelligible speech, fragmented communication, and contradictory messages sent by parents to their children
iii. the child might withdraw into a private world and thereby set the stage for later schizophrenia
C. Evaluating the Theories
1. critics say that the dopamine hypothesis and the brain-abnormalities theory only fit some cases of schizophrenia
a. it is difficult to determine cause and effect for both
2. pyschosocial theories for schizophrenia are subject to the same criticisms as the biological theories
a. research is always inconclusive

Other Disorders

I. Substance-Related Disorders: When Drug Use becomes Abnormal

A. Two substance-related groups
1. substance abuse- when drug use interferes with a person’s social or occupational functioning.
2. substance dependence- when it also causes physical reactions, including tolerance and withdrawal

B. Comorbity- Co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time
1. Most common is alcohol use disorder: alcoholism and other disorders such as depresssion

C. Genetic and Environmental factors

1. reduced parental monitoring, distance from teachers, selective socialization with deviant peers, etc.

II. Dissociaive Disorders: When the Personality Splits Apart

A. Dissociative Disorder- Amnesia, faugue, or multiple personalities resulting from a splitting apart of experience from memory or consciousness

1. Dissociative amnesia- failing to recall or identify past experience
2. dissociative fague- leaving home and wandering off
3. depersonalization disorder- losing the sense of reality and feeling estranged from the self
4. dissociative identity disorder- developing completer separate personalities

B. Primary Cause- Environmental, not genetic

C. Dissociative Identity Disorder

1. Each personality has unique memories, behaviors, and social relationships

2. Triggered by stress
3. DID is controversial: many cases are faked or result from false memories and an unconscious need to please the therapist
4. Sybil-school teacher with 16 personalities

III. Personality Disorders: Antisocial and Borderline

A. Personality Disorders- inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause a significant impairment of social and occupational functioning.

B. Antisocial Personality Disorder

1. Profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
2. Little or no remorse

3. Bring harm to others
4. Scott Peterson’s Symptoms
i. egocentricism, lack of conscience, impulsive behavior, and superficial charm.

5. usually sere and poised when confronted with their destructive behavior
6. How is it developed?
i. Not completely understood
ii.Possibly genetics
iii. Found low autonomic activity during stress, right hemisphere abnormalities, and reduced gray matter in the frontal lobes.
7. environmental factors
i. abusive parenting styles

C. Borderline Personality Disorder

1. Among the most commonly diagnosed personality disorders
2. Characterized by impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
3. extreme difficulties in relationships
4. sexual promiscuity, self-mutilation, drinking, gambling, eating sprees
5. See them selves as absolute (perfect or worthless)
i. associated with a childhood history of neglect, emotional deprivation, and physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
ii. runs in families
iii. impaired functioning of the brain’s fronta lobes and limbic system

7. Solutions
i. therapy