1. Abnormal behavior- patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological for one of these reasons: statistical, infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms.
    2. DSM-IV-TR- classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; the “IV-TR” indicated it is the text revision (TR) of the fourth major revision (IV).
    3. insanity- legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs, because of mental illness.
    4. medical model-perspective that assumes disease have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured.
    5. neurosis- outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems
    6. psychiatry- branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
    7. psychosis- serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and loss of contact with reality
    8. anxiety disorder- type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
    9. generalized anxiety disorder- persistent, uncontrollable, and free-floating anxiety
    10. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)- intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts (obsessions), urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions), or both
    11. panic disorder- sudden and inexplicable panic attacks; symptoms include difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom
    12. phobia- intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
    13. bipolar disorder- Repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
    14. learned helplessness- Seligman’s term for a state of helplessness or resignation in which human or nonhuman animals learn that escape from something painful is impossible and depression results
    15. major depressive disorder- Long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life
    16. delusions- Mistaken beliefs on misrepresentations of reality
    17. dopamine hypothesis- Theory that oer activity of dopamine neurons may contribute to some forms of schizophrenia.
    18. hallucinations- Imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli
    19. schizophrenia- Group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
    20. antisocial personality disorder- Profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
    21. borderline personality disorder- Impulsively and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
    22. comorbidity- co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism
    23. dissociative disorder- Amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from a splitting apart of experience from memory or consciousness
    24. dissociative identity disorder- Presence of two or more distinct personality system in the same individual at different times; previously known as multiple personality disorder
    25. personality disorders- inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning
    26. substance-related disorders- abuse of, or dependence on, a mood- or behavior-altering drug
    27. agoraphobia- means “fear of the marketplace,” people with agoraphobia restrict their normal activities because they fear being in busy, crowded places, in enclosed places, or alone in wide-open spaces
    28. panic attack- intense apprehension that cause trembling, shaking, dizziness, and difficulty breathing; fear or discomfort that arises abruptly and peaks in ten minutes or less
    29. dimensions- degrees of traits or behaviors
    30. trait disorders- long-running personality disturbances and mental retardation


I. Studying Psychological Disorder
A. Identifying Abnormal Behavior: Four Basic Standards
· abnormal behavior is characterized pathological by patterns of emotion, thought, and action by one of these four reasons: Statistical Infrequency, Disability or Dysfunction, Personal Distress, or Violation of Norms.
- Saints in Disneyland (with) dyslexia paint dresses very nicely.
· How frequent or infrequent a behavior is in a given population can that can be determined abnormal is called statistical infrequency or “is this rare behavior?”
- statistical infrequency cannot be the only criteria for judging abnormal behavior as seen in the example of Albert Einstein who was beyond normal intelligence but not considered abnormal.
· “Is normal functioning deteriorating?” (otherwise known as disability or dysfunction) is present when people cannot live properly or make rational decisions.
- Abuse of drugs is an example because they impair the user, thus abusing these substances can lead to substance-related disorder.
· Is the person unhappy or is there personal distress- is defined by the individual’s view on his/her level of behavior.
- Not sufficient as a sole criterion for labeling abnormal behavior.
· If behavior is not culturally normal it is a violation of norms.
· Social norms guide behavior in everyday situations.
· cultural diversity affects violation of norms
· Culture-bounds disorders are found only in certain cultures whereas culture-general disorders that are found in every culture.
B. Insanity
· In legal systems, mental illness is defined as whether or not a person can tell right from wrong.
- NOT the same as abnormal behavior because insanity is a legal term
C. Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition to Science
· In the Stone ages, abnormality was explained by witchcraft and evil spirits
- trephining is to drill a hole in the skull to allow evil spirits to leave.
- Another popular remedy was an exorcism.
· it was also believed people chose to keep company with the Devil
- it was also believed people chose to keep company with the Devil
· many of these people were women who did not follow the normal social norms for women
· Asylums
- began in 15th and 16th centuries
- original intent was to keep patients away from the rest of the world
- 1792 Philippe Pinel improved asylums by taking the patients out from their “dungeons” and treated them humanely. His view that mental illness created abnormal behavior is the accepted view today.
· Modern Times
- psychiatry helps treat physical and mental illness as defined by today’s medical model
- Diagnoses can become self-perpetuating when the person behaves in accordance with the diagnosis they have been given.
- David Rosenhan experimented to see how long it would take for doctors and nurses to realize he is not mentally ill. They never did--once he was labeled as schizophrenic, the doctors only saw that view of him.
A. Explaining Anxiety Disorders: Multiple Roots
1. Psychological
a. Faulty cognitions
· People with anxiety disorders tend to have abnormal thinking patterns
· They are often prone to fear, paranoia and hyper vigilance
b. Maladaptive learning
· Anxiety disorders can be the result of both conditioning and social learning
· A process of negative reinforcement is found in conditioning because negative feelings are attached to something harmless because of a frightening event
· Vicarious phobias are found when a phobia is developed in imitating the fears of another
2. Biological
· Humans are evolutionarily predisposed to be frightened by what was harmful to their ancestors
· Suggesting a biological connection, drugs such as caffeine and nicotine can cause an attack
3. Sociocultural
· Lack of job security and family support and increased pace of life and mobility can contribute to anxiety
· A dramatic difference is shown in the anxieties and thus anxiety disorders in differing cultures

B. Understanding Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Mood disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states
1. Major Depressive Disorder
· This disorder is characterized by long periods of depression that hinder common daily functions and have no distinct trigger
· Those who suffer from it may experience trouble sleeping, a change in weight and extreme fatigue
· Many with the disorder may consider suicide
2. Bipolar Disorder
· Periods of mania followed by (often) longer periods of depression are the major symptoms of this disorder
· When manic, one will experience hyperactivity, be easily distracted and experience a sense of grandeur
· Manic episodes last days or months while the depressive phase tends to last about three times longer
· Bipolar Disorder can be very debilitating and the suicide rate is between ten and twenty percent

C. Explaining Mood Disorders: Biological Views Versus Psychosocial Factors
Mood disorders differ in both severity and duration
1. Biological factors
· The brain often shows decreased gray matter and decreased functioning in the frontal lobes
· Imbalances of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine are often present
· Evidence suggests that mood disorders can be inherited, but it is also acknowledged that relatives have similar genes and environments
· Evolution suggests that moderate depression can also be a response to adapt to suffering from a loss
2. Psychosocial Theories
· Depression from the view of psychosocial studies is the product of environmental stressors and instability in relationships, thought process and learning
· Learned helplessness develops as a result of a constant feeling that there is no way to escape and thus a sense of resignation sets in
IV. Schizophrenia
· Means “split mind”
· People with disorder have problems caring for themselves, connecting with others, and maintaining a job
· 1 in every 100 people develop it
· Likely to develop in late teens & mid 30’s
· Occurs in both genders
· More severe & develops earlier for men
A. Symptoms of Schizophrenia: 5 Areas of Disturbance
1. Perception
· Sense can be dulled or enhanced with this disorder
· Difficulty in filtering and selecting senses
· Commonly experience hallucinations
- Can occur in all senses (touch, sight, smell, etc.)


Most common in auditory sense
· People with disorder can be suicidal and self-destructive due to distortions in perceptions
2. Language and (3.) Thought
· People with the disorder are more likely to jump to different topics
· People with the disorder are prone to:
- Word salad: mixing phrases and words together

- Neologisms: creating fake words
§ e.g. saying “grool” for “great” and “cool”
- Psychosis: losing contact with reality
· Also prone to delusions
- Delusions of persecution: person believes someone is trying to kill them
- Delusions of grandeur: person believes they are an important person
§ e.g. person with the disorder thinks they are Barak Obama
- Delusions of reference: person believes a random event has a specific significance to them
§ e.g. person with disorder thinks a TV shows is sending them a special message
4. Emotion
· Emotions can be exaggerated or quickly changed
- e.g. a person can be engaged in a serious conversation but one part of the brain could be thinking of something funny, making the person laugh out loud during the serious conversation
· Flattened effect: almost no emotional response
5. Behavior
· Odd movements like shaking one’s head side to side or massaging one’s head by people with schizophrenia could be relieve excess or unwanted thoughts
· Odd movements may also be a side effect of the treatment
· People with disorder may become cataleptic
- i.e. they assume a uncomfortable and immobile position for long periods of time
· A few people have waxy flexibility
- i.e. “a tendency to maintain whatever posture is imposed on them”
B. Types of Schizophrenia: Recent Methods of Classification
Dominated by delusions and hallucinations
Marked by immobility/wild activity and echo speech
Incoherent speech, flat or exaggerated emotions, social withdrawal
“catch all,” meets full criteria, but doesn’t have above symptoms
Doesn’t meet full criteria, but shows some symptoms

· Critics say this classification has little value in clinical practice or research
· Also does not differentiate prediction for recovery (prognosis), cause (etiology), or response to treatment
· The alternate classification system for of symptoms
1. Positive symptoms
§ Addition or exaggeration of thoughts
§ Includes delusions and hallucinations
§ Common in acute or reactive schizophrenia (disorder developed fast)
§ Likely for better adjustment to disorder and prediction for recovery
2. Negative Symptoms
§ Loss of normal thought process and behaviors
§ impaired attention, limited speech, flattened effect, social withdrawal
§ found in chronic/process (slow-developing) schizophrenia
C. Explaining Schizophrenia: Nature and Nurture Theories
· Biological Theories
1. Genetics
§ 48% hereditability for the disorder in identical twins
§ People who share more genes are more likely to develop the disorder
§ If one identical twin develops the disorder the other has a 48%-83% chance of also developing it
2. Neurotransmitters
§ Dopamine hypothesis
§ Important observations about hypothesis:
- Large doses of amphetamines increase dopamine level
- Oversupply of dopamine can produce positive symptoms of disorder.
- Amphetamine caused symptoms occur in people with no history of disorder.
- Low doses of amphetamines worsen symptoms for people who already have disease.
- Drugs that effectively treat the disorder reduce dopamine activity, leading to reduction/elimination of positive symptoms of the disorder
3. Brain abnormalities
§ Larger cerebral ventricles (fluid-filled spaces in the brain) found in some people with disorder
§ Lower activity in frontal and temporal lobes for people with chronic schizophrenia
- Because these lobes involve language, attention, and memory this could explain thought and language disturbances symptoms
- Can involve loss in grey matter
§ The correlation with abnormalities doesn’t mean they are the cause for the disorder
§ The disorder itself could cause the abnormalities
§ Some people with disorder do not have brain abnormalities and these abnormalities can be found in other disorders
· Psychosocial Theories
1. Stress
§ Diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia- people inherit a predisposition towards schizophrenia
§ If people experience more stress than they can handle, a schizophrenic episode can be triggered
2. Family communication
§ Communication disorder in parents and family members may be a factor for the disorder
- e.g. unintelligible speech, fragmented communication, & contradictory messages sent by parents to children
§ With this environment, the child might withdraw into a private world and unconsciously set up the stage for schizophrenia
§ Schizophrenic patients that went home to high expressed emotion (EE) families, experienced greater relapses and worsen symptoms
· Evaluating the Theories
- Dopamine hypothesis and brain-abnormalities theory only fit some cases
- Difficult to determine cause and effect
Ex. Does brain damage causes schizophrenia OR does schizophrenia causes brain damage?
D. Schizophrenia Around the World
· Four culturally specific factors support sociocultural or psychological explanations of schizophrenia
1. Prevalence
§ Schizophrenia found in all countries and cultures
§ There are many differences within different cultures
2. Form
§ Forms and symptoms vary
Ex. In Western nations, the major symptom is auditory hallucinations while in Nigeria, the major symptom is intense suspicion
3. Onset
§ There is a relationship between stress and schizophrenia
§ Source of stress can vary
4. Prognosis
§ Prognosis (prediction) for recovery varies
§ Prognosis is better for people in nonindustrialized societies
V. Other Disorders
A. Substance-Related Disorders: When Drug Use Becomes Abnormal
- Substance abuse- when drug use interferes with a person’s social or occupational functioning
- Substance dependence- when drug use causes physical reactions
Ex. Tolerance (needing more of a drug to get the desired effect) or withdrawal (negative physical effects when the drug is no longer used)
- Some people CAN use drugs without forming a substance-related disorder
- Can occur with other disorders (comorbidity)
B. Dissociative Disorders: When the Personality Splits Apart
- Involves a splitting of experience from one’s memory
- Person avoids facing reality by separating themselves from it
- Rely on environmental variables rather than genetics

Dissociative Identity Disorder

§ Most severe dissociative disorder
§ Two or more personalities within one person at different times

The original personality has no idea there is any other personalities
C. Personality Disorders: Antisocial and Borderline
- Usually don’t feel a need to change
· Antisocial Personality Disorder
§ Some consider the most serious of ALL mental disorders
§ Focus only on themselves, don’t care about others
§ Symptoms- four key traits
1. Ego centrism
2. Lack of conscience
3. Impulsive behavior
4. Superficial charm
§ Act on impulses for immediate gratification
§ Comes from both genetics and environment
· Borderline Personality Disorder
§ Among most commonly diagnosed
§ Features: impulsivity and instability
§ One of the most complex disorders
§ Sees people in absolutes- perfect or nothing
§ Commonly associated with neglect, emotional deprivation, and abuse

Borderline Personality Disorder Features:
R-relationship instability
A-anger outburst
S-suicidal, self-harming behavior
E-Emptiness feeling

Important People

T. Langer- founded Langer index which is a screening instrument used to identify psychological disorders that don’t require institutionalization but are disruptive to normal life.
Philippe Pinel: In 1792, he improved asylums by taking the patients out from their “dungeons” and treated them humanely. His view that mental illness created abnormal behavior is the accepted view today
Thomas Szasz: He believes that the medical model encourages people to believe they have no responsibility for their actions and that they can find solutions in drugs, hospitalization, or surgery
David Rosenhan: Experimented to see how long it would take for doctors and nurses to realize he is not mentally ill. They never did--once he was labeled as schizophrenic, the doctors only saw that view of him
Freud: Neurosis reflected his theory about anxiety disorders. He believed that anxiety could be experienced directly (through phobias, obsessions, and compulsions) or that the unconscious could convert it into bodily complaints. Over the years, mental health professionals decided his emphasis on unconscious processes was too limiting, and the category of neuroses was too large to maximally useful
Martin Seligman- developer of learned helplessness theory of depression. Demonstrated that when humans and animals are exposed to pain that is inescapable, they develop a strong sense of helplessness. Meaning they do not try to escape future painful experiences, even if there is an opportunity to do so.
Eugene Bleuler- coiled the term schizophrenia to mean “slit mind.” He was referring to split thought process and emotions of the disorder.

Interesting Facts

Schizophrenia: ABC 20/20 Documentary

Obsessed: Traci Rides to the Pier __http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50PoO2TwBCA&feature=relmfu__
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is the irresistible act to perform a ritual as shown by Traci in the video. Traci is on the A&E television show “Obsessed” where she tries to overcome her fear of germs.

Depression Study:
“Study links chocolate and depression”
Studies done recently at UC San Diego and UC Davis have linked chocolate and depression. This study showed that, out of 931 men and women, the people that possibly have major depression eat about 11.8 servings of chocolate per month. This is compared to the people without depression who consume about 5.4 serving of chocolate in a month. These studies have tested other dietary factors, but they found that no other foods correlated with mood like chocolate did. It is said that chocolate can improve one’s mood, but only for a few minutes. After those few minutes, it is more likely that the person will slip right back into a depressed state. Although these studies have come up with some interesting results, it is not believed by everyone that they are accurate (Roan).

Depression Study:

“Seasonal Affective Disorder Signs and Treatments”

There is a disorder called Seasonal Affective Disorder, SAD, or winter depression. This disorder has traits of depressions, exhaustion, and lack of interest and daily activities. This disorder causes personal distress on a person’s outlook on life and it disables people to function properly. This disorder is believed to be triggered by lack of light in the winter. “The lack of light unbalances the chemistry in the brain, which makes people susceptible to the winter blues. Sunlight also energizes the blood. In fact, some doctors believe people with Seasonal Affective Disorder have blood that isn't absorbing enough light” (__Pawlik-Kienlen__). Likewise there is also the less common Summer SAD. This disorder displays effects of insomnia, weight loss, and appetite loss. The treatment for this disorder is a portable light therapy to make up for the lack of sunlight.

Agoraphobia is the fear of not wanting to leave the house, but another interesting fear is “Ephebophobia – Fear of Youths.” It is the irrational and persistent fear and/or loathing of teenagers or adolescence. (“Top 10 Bizarre Phobias”)

Works Cited:
Huffman, Karen. Pyschology in Action. Eight ed. Davers, MA:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007. Print
Roan, Shari. "Study Links Chocolate and Depression - Los Angeles Times." Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. 27 Apr. 2010. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://articles.latimes.com/2010/apr/27/science/la-sci-chocolate-20100427>.

Pawlik-Kienlen, Laurie. “Seasonal Affective Disorder Sings and Treatment” 4 Oct. 2007. Web 30 March 2011. < http://www.suite101.com/content/seasonal-affective-disorder-a32570>.

"Top 10 bizarre Phobias ." Listverse. N.p., 20 Aug. 2007. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.