active listening- listening with total attention to what another is saying; involves reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the person says and means
anti-anxiety drugs - medications used to treat anxiety disorders

antidepressant drugs- medications used to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and certain eating disorders (such as bulimia)
antipsychotic drugs- medications used to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis; also known as narcoleptics or major tranquilizers
aversion therapy- pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
behavior therapy- group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
Biomedical Therapy - Using physiological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
client-centered therapy- Roger's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive
cognitive-behavior therapy- Beck's system for confronting and changing behaviors associated with destructive cognitions
cognitive restructuring- process in cognitive therapy to change destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations

cognitive therapy- therapy that focuses on faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors
dream analysis- in psychoanalysis, interpreting the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious process
Eclectic Approach - Combining techniques from various theories to find the most appropriate treatment
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Biomedcal therapy based on passing electrical current through the brain; used almost exclusively to treat serious depression when drug therapy does not work
empathy- in Rogerian terms, an insightful awareness and ability to share another's inner experience
Family therapy- Treatment to change maladaptive interactive patterns within a family
Free Association- in psychoanalysis, repeating whatever comes to mind without monitoring its content.
Genuineness- In Rogerian terms, authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one’s true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly.
Group therapy- A number of people meet together to work towards therapeutic goals.
Humanistic therapy- Therapy to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment).
Interpretation- A psychoanalyst’s explanation of a patients few associations, dreams, resistance, and transference; more generally, any statement by a therapist that presents a patient’s problem in a new way.
Lobotomy - Outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal lobe and the thalamus and hypothalamus
modeling therapy- watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
psychotherapy- techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life
Psychoanalysis- Freudian therapy designed to being unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness; also Freud’s theoretical school of thought emphasizing unconscious processes.
Psychopharmacology - The study of drug effects on mind and behavior
Psychosurgery - Operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment
systematic desensitization- a gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed

  • The Major goal of therapy: to help with everyday problems in living (parent-child, marriages, death of loved ones, etc)
    • Not everyone in therapy is suffering from mental illness.
    • Psychotherapy: techniques used by professionals.
    • Clinical and counseling therapists.
    • Biomedical Therapies:drug treatments, electroconvulsive therapy.
    • Now psychotherapy and biomedical therapy overlap in treatment.
    • Three types of therapies: Insight, behavioral, and biomedical.
      • Ex: BIB --> Baby Inside Bertha

Insight Therapies
Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic Therapies: Unlocking the Secrets of the Unconscious:
  • Psychoanalysis: To bring the unconscious conflicts (from early childhood) into the consciousness.
  • Five major methods:
    • Free Association:
      • This is when you remove conscious censorship over thoughts.
      • The first thought that comes to mind shows what we want most to conceal.
    • Dream Analysis:
      • “the royal road to the unconscious”
      • Defenses are lower during sleep allowing desires and conflicts to be expressed.
      • Manifest Content: The symbols of the dream
      • Latent Content: What they symbols really represent.
        • For example: Freud would say that driving a car (manifest content) would really represent desire or concern about sex (latent content).
    • Analyzing Resistance:
      • Resistance- inability or unwillingness to reveal certain memories, motives, or experiences.
    • Analyzing Transference:
      • As the patient divulges deep information the Therapist and patient form a complex and emotional bond.
      • Therapists become a symbol of the patients problems and as a result they apply their attitudes and emotions onto the therapist.
      • This helps the patient work through their problems.
      • Patient becomes “couchridden” because they can spend years in this type of therapy
    • Interpretation:
      • While going through the other steps (see above) the therapist listens closely and at the right time the therapist “interpreters” the meaning to the patient.
  • Evaluation of the Insight therapies:
    • Limited in Applicability:
      • Freud’s methods in the 1900’s were for a specific class of people (upper class)
      • Success with this method works best with less severe disorders.
      • Time consuming
      • Does not work with mental disorders (ie: schizophrenia)
    • Lack of scientific credibility:
      • Do not know when you have brought unconscious into the conscious
      • there is no ability to prove or disprove the theory.
  • Modern Psychodynamic Therapy: a modern form of psychoanalysis that focuses on conscious processes and current problems
    • Meets one or two times a week for only a few weeks or months.
    • Patient is face to face (not on a couch)
    • Focus more attention of current problems (not childhood ones)
    • Interpersonal Therapy (IPT): focuses on current relationships and issues dealing with those relationships.

Cognitive Therapies: A Focus on Faulty Thoughts and Beliefs:
  • Cognitive therapy: focuses on faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat behavior problems.
    • Analyze a persons thought process and tries to alter destructive thoughts
    • Self-Talk: Internal Dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they are trying to interpret events.
      • EX: If you have Mr. Conway, think of when he asked the class which students talk out loud to themselves and then went on to discuss how he does this frequently
    • Cognitive Restructuring: Process to change destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations.
        • An example of a cognitive problem would be beliefs like “If i do not do everything perfect I am worthless”
  • Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy:
    • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)- eliminate self-defeating beliefs through rational examination.
    • 4 Step Process:
      • Activating Agent: A type of stimulus
        • (ig: criticism from boss)
      • Belief System: the persons interpretation of the activating experience.
      • Consequences: the emotion and behavioral consequences of this experience
      • Disputing: the challenging of erroneous beliefs
    • When people demand “musts” from themselves then they create distress.
  • Aaron Beck and Cognitive- Behavior Therapy:
    • Psychological problems result from illogical thinking and bad self-talk.
    • Cognitive Behavior Therapy: directly confront and change destructive behaviors.
    • Thinking Patterns Associated with Depression:
      • Selective Perception: focus on negative events ignoring positive ones
      • Overgeneralizing: draw negative conclusions about self worth
      • Magnification: exaggerate importance on undesirable events
      • All or None Thinking: see things in black and white, good or bad, success or failure
  • Evaluating Cognitive Therapies:
    • Effective for treating depression, anxiety, and other disorders
    • ignores unconscious dynamics
    • Ellis imposes this own set of standards

Blocked Personal Growth:
  • Humanistic therapy- therapy to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment)
  • Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy:
    • Treats based on the Client-centered Therapy- Rogers’s therapy emphasizing the client’s natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening.
    • How therapists create a therapeutic relationship
      • Empathy- an insightful awareness and ability to share another’s inner experience
      • Unconditional Positive Regard- love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
      • Genuineness- authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one’s true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others
      • Active Listening- listening with total attention to what another is saying; involves reflecting, paraphrasing, an clarifying what the person says and means
    • Remember Carl Rogers Created Client-Centered Therapy
  • Evaluating Humanistic Therapies:
    • Empirical evidence for the efficacy
    • Difficult to test scientifically
    • Mixed results but reports are based on clients’ self-reports

Group, Family, and Marital Therapies: Healing Interpersonal Relationships:
  • A response to a shortage of therapists, Group Therapy- a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals
    • A variation: Self-help group- leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem
      • EX: Alcoholics Anonymous
    • Advantages of group therapy
      • Less expense
      • Group support
      • Insights and information (comes from the experiences of others in the group)
      • Behavior rehearsal (group members can role-play and practice new social skills)external image 9kRGxAkszkI4gr6ynTf4MCVWAC5-EWYQZSJ1Jttja1UDcp3B8hsCJLDQnGtdevPN9w3djKwv9M4ddPdH7jvsnBBpbOQCqeMHQB0O8Q0zmAn8ctv-emI
  • Family Therapy- treatment to change maladaptive interaction patterns within a family
    • Within family therapy is marital therapy as well as counseling between any members of the family
    • Therapy can be useful in treating clinical disorders, discovering and solving the root of problems, and is the most favorable in situations of adolescent drug abuse
    • Remember family therapy includes marital therapy by remembering that marriages are within a family

  • Behavior Therapy- group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
    • Example: Miss Jane has not left her house for 2 years now except with her husband. She goes through a year of insight-based theory and becomes aware of her problem. Her therapist trained her to behave differently. She was finally able to leave her house because of this technique.
  • In behavior therapy, the therapist diagnoses the problem by listing the maladaptive behaviors that occur and the adaptive behaviors that are absent
  • A behavior therapist draws on principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning

Classical Conditioning Techniques: The Power of Association
  • Systematic desensitization- a gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed
    • Developed by Joseph Wolpe to extinguish her agoraphobia
    • This goal is to replace an anxiety response with a relaxation response when confronting the feared stimulus
    • 3 Steps
      • 1. Client is taught how to maintain a state of relaxation
      • 2. Therapist and client construct a hierarchy, or ranked listing of 10 or so anxiety-arousing images
      • 3. Relaxed client mentally visualizes or physically experiences items at the bottom of the hierarchy, then moved towards the top of the hierarchy
  • Aversion therapy- pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
    • Creates anxiety
    • Creates negative associations
    • Example: An alcoholic can take Antabuse so when alcohol enters their system they will get nausea and vomit. They will then associate vomiting and nausea with alcohol and will stop drinking

Operant Conditioning Techniques: Increasing the “Good” and Decreasing the “Bad”
  • Operant conditioning techniques use shaping and reinforcement to increase adaptive behaviors, and punishment and extinction to decrease maladaptive behaviors
  • In behavior therapy, a behavior to be acquired is called the target behavior
  • Shaping is one operant technique for eventually performing the target behavior
    • Shaping helps people with social skills
    • Role-playing
    • Behavior rehearsal
      • Also the technique behind assertiveness training, where people stand up for themselves
  • Kids with autism don’t communicate or interact normally with others
  • Adaptive behaviors can be taught with techniques that provide immediate reinforcement in form of tokens
  • Tokens are secondary reinforcers

Observational Learning Techniques: The Power of Modeling
  • Observing techniques- watching others (Example: through TV, magazines, people)
  • Modeling therapy - watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
  • EX. Bandura asked people with snake phobias to watch other people handle snakes. After a few hours, the snake phobic people let the snake crawl on them and they played with the snakes.
  • Participant modeling - when the client combines live modeling with direct and gradual practice

Evaluating Behavior Therapies: How Well Do They Work?
  • Generalizability- some behaviors may disappear after awhile.
    • Behavior therapists work to gradually shape clients toward rewards that are typical of life outside the clinical setting
  • Ethics- controlling another person’s life
    • Behavior therapy increases a person’s freedom by making these controls overt
    • Help increase self-control

  • Biomedical therapies : using physiological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
    • Based on the premise that mental health problems are caused, at least in part, by chemical imbalances or disturbed nervous system functioning
    • Psychiatrist rather than psychologist must prescribe

Psychopharmacology: Treating Psychological Disorders with Drugs
  • Discoveries from psychopharmacology (the study of drug effects on mind d behavior) have helped correct a chemical imbalance
    • Using drug is similar to administering insulin to people with diabetes; in other cases, drugs are used to relieve or suppress the symptoms of psychological disturbances even when underlying cause is not known to be biomedical
  • Psychiatric drugs are classified into for major categories: antianxiety, antipsychotc, mood stabilizer, and antidepressant
  • Antianxiety drugs, or minor tranquilizers, produce relaxation or reduce anxiety in addition to relieving muscle tension
    • Among the most used and abused drugs
    • Work by increasing the effectiveness of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which has inhibitory, or calming, effect on neurons

    • EX:external image YVqbIPddASZyeswvKHCsmKy5fEhda-e78c1fSkL8WZeZDNjh7JYEgTgw-g4yikjpfKi7lftvifmx5cXLCFlBcoYLeYJ1bD0t18rFhZGT1OQRK6z7dzwexternal image PQbesExyerZbwmDTVcN3AHADF4EX7j82PVeHppkIHvpfdsCVDYdge6MV5N7Xlm7VsK-ssADwvjDWEsILw5V7fVcAZuez0CyBDgcKMDL5mVUUCHuHXF4
  • Antipsychotic drugs, or neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are medications used to deminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis
    • Main intended effect: to diminish or eliminate symptoms, not to sedate the patient
      • Do not cure schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no more psychotic episodes
        • Drugs for schizophrenia work by decreasing activity at the dopamine synapses
    • Examples: Haldol, Clorazril
  • Mood stabilizer drugs, such as lithium, can help manic episodes and depression for people suffering with bipolar disorder
    • Primary use: preventing future episodes and helping to break the manic-depression cycle, although may take few weeks to have an effect
  • Antidepressant drugs: medications used to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and certain eating disorders
    • Four types, acronym: TAMS (the Tricycle’s Atypical Mono is Selective)
      • Tricyclics (named for their chemical structure, which contains three rings); act on multiple neurochemical pathways in the brain, increasing levels of serotonin and catecholamines
        • Ex: Tofranil
      • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block the enzyme monoamine oxidase, increasing the availability of helpful neurochemicals
        • Ex: Nardil
      • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) seletively affect only serotonin; most commonly prescribed antidepressant
        • Ex: Prozac
      • Atypical antidepressants are a misc. group used for patients who fail to respond to other drugs or for people who experience certain side effects that are common to other antidepressants
        • Ex: Buspar and Effexor

Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery: Promising or Perilous?
  • In electroconvulsive therapy, also known as electroshock therapy, a current of moderate intensity is passed through the brain between two electrodes placed on the outside of the head; used almost exclusively to treat serious depression when drug therapy does not work
    • Triggers widespread firing of neurons, also known as convulsions
      • Convulsions produce many changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including activation of the autonomic nervous system, increased secretion of various hormones and neurotransmitters, and changes in blood-brain barrier
      • Used with suicidal patients because it works faster than antidepress. drugs
    • Controversial because we do not know exactly why it works, but it severely changes the function and perhaps structure of the brain
    • Way to remember: ECT! --> n e u r o n s --> convulsions
  • Most extreme and least used biomedical therapy is psychosurgery--brain surgery to reduce serious, debilitating psychological problems
    • Roman times: sword wound to head could relieve insanity
    • Egaz Moniz invented way to deal with uncontrollable psychoses in 1936
      • Lobotomy: outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalamus
        • Almost never used today

Evaluating Biomedical Therapies: Are They Effective?
  • Psychopharmacology
    • Although drugs may provide relief of symptoms, they seldom provide “cures” or long-term solutions
    • Not all patients are helped by these drugs
    • Some patients become physically dependent and develop tolerance to drug
      • Withdrawal symptoms can occur if drug has stopped being taken
    • Controlling negative side effects is a large issue
    • Most serious side effects of antipsychotic drugs: movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia, which develops in about 15-20 of patients
      • Symptoms generally appear after drug has been taken for long periods of time, include involuntary movement of the tongue, face, and sometimes other muscles that can be severely disabling
    • Antidepressants have major and minor side effects
      • Dry mouth, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, and memory difficulties
    • Mood stabilizer drugs have side effects as well
      • Impair memory and cause weight gain
    • Remember!: Despite side effects, psychotherapeutic drugs have led to revoluntionary changes in health--just think of Courtney Hale!
  • ECT and psychosurgery
    • EX: One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest: lead character, pictured below, is a persistant problem for hospital staff. To punish and control him, they used drug therapy, then ECT, and finally psychosurgery--a prefrontal lobotomy
      • Deepened public fear and misconceptions about biomedical therapyexternal image 7GHNWek2Mf7DCGOMRoyeJIqbdg5AH2olhTQbdVfwsDGn19buVE3aUZ0ll5u4MihdQdIjPKpoxr1Fs5XeWkJ02QoRHfKgdNwYRWQ7g9B0B23wGbxTYa0
    • Some ECT patients find treatment to be completely uncomfortable, which others find it life-saving
    • Problems with ECT may become obsolete due to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which delivers a brief but powerful electric current directly through a coil of wire placed on the head
      • Creates a strong magnetic field that is applied to certain areas in the brain
      • Has fewer side effects than ECT, but studies reported no significant benefits
    • Psychosurgery is considered experimental and remains a highly controversial treatment

Therapy Essentials: Five Common Goals
  • Consistent with the goals of psychology, therapist try to change their clients in the ways that they are trained how to do. There are five specific areas that all therapists are trained to help their clients with
    • Disturbed thoughts (confusion, destructive thoughts, or inhibited understanding of their situations)
    • Disturbed emotions ( discomfort, too emotional vs too stoic)
    • Disturbed behaviors (destructive habits)
    • Interpersonal and life situation difficulties (locating the cause of stress and improving relationships with others)
    • Biomedical disturbances (recognizing and diagnosing biological disruptions)
  • Different emphasis on each of the goals depends on the therapist’s training and the client
  • Therapists who do not focus on one theory (such as cognitive or behavioral) but combine techniques take an eclectic approach
    • Example: A client goes to a therapist with severe emotional disturbances and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. This particular therapist prefers to take an eclectic approach and therefore will not only focus on the thoughts (or cognition) causing the severe emotions but also the behavior related to it. The therapist will help the client
  • There are six major types of mental health professions listed in the chart below

external image 79WQ_pwI7g9ivLblGWoaP0IWNUNXwUGuBn2xmyRf1ZsvG7hDs0dkzXeM8ReU9DTX4Ga3amtJNzFetKMl9tSrkqQ4YizysMuC_ILqs79CrWHmmFqR2k8
  • Culture and Gender: effects therapy?
    • Cultural Similarities
    • The following criteria are consistent among therapies in different cultures:
      • Naming the problem
      • Qualities of the therapist
      • Establishing credibility
      • Placing the problem in a familiar framework
      • Applying techniques to bring relief
      • A special time and place
    • Cultural Differences
      • The image below of a crystal healing would be considered in some cultures to be a type of therapy to help the body recover spiritually. Compared to what the Western European model of therapy is as displayed by the image of a man on a couch talking to a psychiatrist.
      • Cultural differences between the client and the therapist must also be addressed with the proper adjustments as well, because the client trusts the therapist to effectively help them which may not be possible if the therapist doesn’t fully understand the culture where the client comes from.
      • external image C3yvyQTu76go04ZLTUBNl51gwLAtGTMHjIw7D7I4nqrxX8PTUhJ2oqqym0a3noNBiNy9ywkuVviaOs4jTLcJ-8pLVutav3qiX7fi8wzlK9NEjh1EbxMexternal image b6BNcXoew7JPtrINqcQGqoMM1ytWgS9S-qldfig96rULRGo6SJQFByvbpSfnsqsB7Fwt4ni5RZgYCr31dxL57u8pNnr0EVfDtpPJUpCEBEJbedmUok0
    • Women in Therapy
      • Women pose radically different clients to therapists then men to and need to be addressed differently
      • Controversy exists on whether categories for mental illness are biased against women due to the fact that women get diagnosed more frequently of mental disorders
      • Women tend to have more stress (poverty, multiple roles, and aging) and their is a higher likely hood that women will be involved in a rape or sexual harassment situations

Institutionalization: Treating Chronic and Serious Mental Disorders
  • Involuntary commitment is necessary and only permitted on three general principles
    • The patient is harmful to themselves or others
    • The patient is in serious need of treatment
    • All other options have been exhausted
  • The opposite of institutionalization is deinstitutionalization, discharging people from mental hospitals which is often a humane and good step
  • Deinstitutionalization can be a problem because it is the policy of most states to get patients out of the mental hospital as quickly as possible, often not offering any follow up treatments, leaving people in need of mental care out on the streets
  • Community Mental Health (CMH) Centers are an alternative to the institutionalization process.
    • CMH centers offer services like individual and group therapy, and serve similar operations to a halfway house, between mental hospitals and the real world
    • Problems: very expensive

Evaluating and Finding Therapy: Does It Work? How to Choose?
  • Psychologists have come up with ways to test the reliability of therapy without relying solely on the self-report of people who have gone through therapy.
  • Meta-analysis has formulated the most extensive research about the effectiveness of therapy.
  • This evidence has yielded the conclusion that therapy does work
  • Finding a therapist that will work for each individual can be difficult to find, and might take a little bit of work to find one that meets the criteria that the client is looking for.

1. Aaron Beck - Cognitive Therapist. Believed that psychological problems result from illogical thinking and from destructive self-talk. Provides clients with experiences, both inside and outside of therapy, that will alter their negative talk in a favorable way and the goal is to directly confront and change the behaviors associated with destructive thoughts. Most successful was treatment of depression using selective perception, overgeneralization, magnification, all-or-nothing thinking. Beck gives his clients tests to prove the client that they are not depressed and cannot think negatively all the time but to think of positive outcomes. Criticism include: misunderstood information, too rational, doe not deal with feelings, and misconstrued in general.

2. Albert Ellis - Cognitive Therapist. Developed a rational-emotive behavior therapy which encouraged clients to express thoughts and feelings to gain insight from their behaviors. He uses a four step process to deal with this thinking which includes: activating event, belief system, emotional consequences, and disputing or challenging the belief. Once clients realized their negative behavior, Ellis taught them how to behave differently and to have better coping skills. Criticism include: does not address the true meaning behind the personality issues.

3. Richard Lazarus - Richard Lazarus was an advocate of healthy living and dealing with stress. Related to his interests with managing one’s life in a proper manner, Lazarus helped to represent behavior therapy, using learning principles to change behaviors. The professor helped to emphasize that a person’s overall well-being (physical, emotional, social, psychological, etc.) is dependent on the way she copes with stress. In effort to raise awareness to methods of changing behaviors to be less “stressed out,” Lazarus wrote two novels on the crucial subject: Stress, Appraisal and Coping and Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis.

4. Carl Rogers - Carl Rogers maintained a humanist perspective and this approach to therapy is called client-centered therapy which emphasizes the client’s natural tendency to become healthy and productive. The techniques include Empathy, insightful awareness and ability to share another inner experience, unconditional positive regard, love and acceptance with no contingencies attached, genuineness, awareness of one’s true thoughts and inner feelings, and active listening, listening to what others say and reflection. Supporters of this type of therapy say there is empirical evidence for the efficacy of client centered therapy. Critics say that elements of this theory such as self actualization and self awareness are hard to test scientifically.

5. Sigmund Freud- Sigmund Freud’s contribution to therapy is in the area of psychoanalysis or psychodynamic therapies, in which the main purpose is to unlock the secrets of the unconscious. Just like Freud’s pyschosexual stages of development, unconscious conflicts are said to have been in existence since early childhood. Freud developed five major methods of psychoanalysis, including free association, dream analysis, analyzing resistance, analyzing transference, and interpretation. Modern scientists question the assumption that repressed memories and unconscious conflicts exist; two other problems that have been pointed out in Freud’s form of therapy are that there is limited applicability (he mainly tested Viennese people in his research) and lack of scientific credibility (it is impossible to scientifically document certain aspects of patients’ therapy).

6. Egaz Moniz- Egaz Moniz was a early twentieth century Portuguese neurologist who decided to treat psychoses by cutting the nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and lower brain centers. This procedure would go on to be called a lobotomy and would be the model for the most extreme biomedical therapy of psychosurgery. Lobotomies are now rarely used because of the serious complications associated with this procedure. They treated the psychoses but left patients without the capacity to live normally.

7. Joseph Wolpe- Wolpe developed systematic desensitization which is a procedure in which there is a gradual extinction of a learned fear or phobia by working through a hierarchy of fear evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed. This is a three step process; the first step is to get into a state of deep relaxation; the second step is for the client to rank a list of an anxiety arousing images and the final step is for the client to work their way up the hierarchy confronting each fear. Then there is Aversion Therapy where you pair an unpleasant stimulus with a bad behavior. The critics ask if this is ethical to hurt someone and they ask if it has a lasting effect.
1. - support group therapy session
2.Ancient Egyptians and the Chinese also used colors as an alternative therapy. This is
called Chromotherapy. Red is to stimulate the body and mind and increase circulation.
Yellow to stimulate the nerves. Orange helps to heal lungs and increase energy in the body. Blue is soothing and helps with pain. Lastly, indigo can help with skin problems (Cherry) more acne!!
3. Early treatments of mental disorders, *squeamish warning for end, shows lobotomy prodedure*
4. “Actor Heath Ledger, 28, was found dead at a Manhattan residence Tuesday. Police told ABC News’ Richard Esposito that prescription drugs including sleeping pills and two anti-anxiety medications likely played a part, and the death appeared to be accidental”:
5. In the movie One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, the plot is about a man who claims to be insane. When he misbehaves he is controlled and punished through drug therapy, ECT, and finally psychosurgery (a frontal lobotomy). This popular movie made people fear and misunderstand the procedures and benefits of biomedical therapy. (Huffman)