CHAPTER 2: Neuroscience and Biological Foundations

Brain Structures

Brainstem- Regulates reflex activities critical for survival, like the heartbeat and respiration
Cerebellum - Coordinates muscle movement, balance, perception, and cognition
Cerebral Cortex - Regulates sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes
Corpus Callosum - Nerve fibers that connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres
Frontal lobes- Situated at the front of the brain, govern motor control, speech, thinking, personal emotion, and memory
Hypothalmus - Responsible for emotions and drives, such as hunger, sex, and aggression
Medulla - Responsible for automatic body functions, such as breathing and heartbeat
Pons - Hindbrain structure involved in respiration, movement, walking, sleep and dreaming
Occipital lobes- Responsible for vision and visual perception
Temporal lobes- Involved in hearing, language, comprehension, memory, and emotions
Parietal lobes - interprets bodily functions and sensation; located behind the frontal lobe in the cerebral cortex
Hippocampus - serves as the memory system; sends messages to the cerebral cortex; located in the limbic system
Amygdala - controls the emotional responses of fear and aggression; located at the end of the hippocampus n the limbic system
Wernicke’s- is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked to speech and is involved in the understanding of written and spoken language.
Broca’s- a region of the brain with functions linked to speech production.

Neural Bases of Behavior
Action potential- neural impulse that carries information along the axon with a neuron. The action potential is generated when positively charged ions move in and out through channels in the axon’s membrane
axon-Version: a long, tube like structure that conveys impulses away from the neurons cell body toward other neurons or to muscles or glands
cell body-the part of the neuron that contains the cell nucleus, as well as other structures that help the neuron carry its functions
dendrites- branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body.
endocrine- branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body.
endorphins- chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and section to opiates and are involved in pain control, pleasure, and memory. glial cells- cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support for the neurons, as well as communication within the nervous system
hormones- chemicals manufacture by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily functions
myelin sheath- layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon.
neuron- cell of the nervous system responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information.
neurotransmitters- released by neurons that effect other neurons.
synapse- junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. During an action potential, chemicals called neurotransmitters are released and flow across the synaptic gap
nodes of Ranvier - places where the message is sent; the message skips over the myelin sheath and hits the nodes; located in between the myelin sheath terminal buttons - where neurotransmitters are released; end of the neuron
Refactory Period- is a period of time during which an organ or cell is incapable of repeating a particular action
all-or-none law- is the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus.
sodium-potassium pump- The enzyme-based mechanism that maintains correct cellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions by removing excess ions from inside a cell and replacing them with ions from outside the cell. Some neurotransmitters are commonly described as "excitatory" or "inhibitory":

Nervous System Organization
Autonomic Nervous system- (ANS); subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that controls involuntary functions, such as heart rate and digestion; further subdivided into the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
central nervous system- (CNS); consists of the brain and spinal cord
interneurons- neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory and motor neurons
motorneurons- transmit messages from the central nervous system to organs, muscles, and glands; also known as efferent neurons
parasympathetic nervous system- subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); responsible for calming the body and conserving energy
peripheral nervous system- (PNS); all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
reflexes- innate, automatic responses to a stimulus
sensory neurons- transmit messages from sense organs to the central nervous system; also known as afferent neurons
somatic nervous system- (SNS); a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles
sympathetic nervous system- subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for arousing the body and mobilizing its energy during times of stress; also called the “flight-or-fight” system
afferent- afferent neurons (otherwise known as sensory neurons), carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towards the CNS.
efferent nerves – otherwise known as motor neurons – carry nerve impulses away from the CNS to effectors such as muscles or glands.

A Tour Through the Brain
Association areas- So called quiet areas in the cerebral cortex involved in interpreting, integrating, and acting on information processed by other parts of the brain.
Forebrain- Collection of upper-level brain structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex.
Lateralization- Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain for particular operations.
Limbic system- Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory.
Localization of function- Specialization of various parts of the brain for particular functions.
Midbrain- Collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain responsible for coordinating movement patterns, sleep, and arousal.
Reticular formation- Diffuse set of neurons that screens incoming information and controls arousal.
Split-brain- Surgical separation of the brain’s two hemispheres used medically to treat severe epilepsy; split brain patents provide data on the functions of the two hemispheres.
Thalmus- Forebrain structure at the top of the brainstem that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex.

Our Genetic Inheritance
Behavioral genetics- the study of the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior and mental processes
Chromosomes- a threadlike molecule of DNA that carries genetic information
Evolutionary psychology- a branch of psychology that studies the ways in which natural selection and adaptation can explain behavior and mental processes
Genes- a segment of DNA that occupies a specific place on a particular chromosome and carries the code for hereditary transmission.
Heritability- a measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors.
Natural selection- the driving mechanism behind evolution which allows individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment to stay alive and produce offspring.
Neurogenesis- the division and differentiation of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons.
Neuroplasticity- the brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function.
Stem cells- precursor cells that give birth to new specialized cells; holds all information needed to make a bone, blood, brain-any part of the human body.
neuroscience - the study of how biological processes relate to behavior and mental processes

Research Methods
CT scan - uses x-rays to develop a structural image of the brain
PET scan - uses radioactive dye that is absorbed by the brain to show the most active parts of the brain
MRI - uses nuclear technology to develop a detailed image of the brain

IMPORTANT PEOPLE

1. Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder
-American neuroscientists
- discovered the opiate receptor: the cellular binding site for endorphins in the brain
- Later they identified the existence of normally occurring opiate-like peptides in brain

2. James Olds and Peter Milner
- American psychologists
- co-discovered the reward center of the brain
- reward center: areas that work deliver a sense of pleasure and focus the attention of the individual so that he or she learns to repeat the behavior once more

3. Paul Broca
-1865 - French physician Paul Broca discovered that patients with damage to certain area of the brain (Broca’s area) had difficulty speaking BUT could comprehend written/spoken language
-Broca’s aphasia=impaired language ability
-Broca’s area is located in the left frontal lobe

4. Carl Wernicke
-German neurologist who found that patients with damage in Wernicke’s area could not understand what they read/heard BUT could speak easily
-Wernicke’s aphasia =unintelligible speech.
-example: girl is pronounced as “curl”
-Wernicke’s area is located in the left temporal lobe
-involved in language comprehension

5. Roger Sperry
- In 1981, received a Nobel Prize in physiology/medicine for his split-brain research

6. Fredric Schiffer
- In 1998, at McLean Hospital in Massachusetts, reported that different aspects of personality appear in different hemispheres

7. Phineas Gage
-1848, Gage suffered an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, which affected his brain’s left frontal lobe
-in turn, this brain damage affected his personality and behavior
-first case that suggests that damage to specific regions of the brain may affect personality and behavior



CHAPTER 2: Neuroscience and Biological Foundations Outline

I. What is a neuron? Psychology at the Micro Level

Nervous system consists of neurons
Neurons: cells of the nervous system that communicate electrochemical info throughout the body
Each body has as many as one trillion neurons
Neurons are held in place by Glial cells
Glial cells surrounds neuron, cleans up, and insulates one neuron from another.

II. Basic parts of a Neuron

No two neurons are the same
Most neurons do share three basic features
I. Dendrites: acts like antennas, receiver electrochemical info from other neurons and transmitting it to the cell body.

II. Cell body: aka soma, accepts the incoming messages

III. Axon: a long, tube like structure carries info away from the soma

c. Myelin sheath: a white, fatty coating around the axons of some neurons

I. Helps insulate and speed neural impulses

II. Importance becomes apparent in certain diseases i.e.: multiple sclerosis- myelin progressively deteriorates

example: when you are putting on a bracelet, it is easier to put it on when you already have lotion on your hands (myeling sheath) because it makes the bracelet slip on easier and faster than if your hands were dry

d. At the tip of each branch are terminal buttons which release chemicals called neurotransmitters

e. Neurotransmitters move the message from the end of the axon to the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron and the message continues.

III. Communication within the Neuron- The Action Potential

Neural communication begins within the neuron itself, when electrical messages are received by the dendrites and cell body.
These messages are passed along the axon in the form of a neural impulse aka action potential
The movement down the axon actually results from a change in the permeability of a cell membrane
There is no such thing as a “partial” action potential.
I. All or none law: the action potential either fires completely or not at all.

II. Immediately after a neuron fires, in enters a brief refractory period where it cannot fire again.

example: when a gun fires a bullet it either fires it all of the way or does not fire it at all-it cannot “half” fire a bullet

III. The resting balance is restored with negative ions inside and positive ions outside, then the neuron is ready to fire again.

e. Travel speed of a neuron is actually much slower than electricity through a wire

I. Travels along a bare axon at only about 10 meters per second

II. Myelin blankets the axon, with the exception of the nodes, points at which the myelin is very thin or absent

III. Myelinated axon moves about 10 times faster than in a bare axon


IV. Communication between neuron is not the same as communication within the neuron

Messages travel electrically within and chemically between multiple neurons.
Transfer from one neuron to another occurs at the junction between them called the synapse
Knoblike terminal buttons at the axon’s end open and release a few thousand chemical molecules called neurotransmitters
I. They move across the synaptic gap carrying the message from the sending neuron to the receiving one

II. It delivers either an excitatory or inhibitory message

III. Because of these multiple and competing messages, receiving neuron only produces action potential when excitatory messages outweigh inhibitory ones.

IV. The nervous system manages an amazing balancing act between overexcitation and underexcitation leading to seizures and coma or death, respectively.

V. Researchers have discovered hundreds of substances know to function as neurotransmitters. Some regulate the actions of glands and muscles while others promote sleep or mental stimulation.

VI. An understanding of neurotransmitters explains not only the origin of certain diseases and treatments, but also how poisons and drugs can affect the brain

Most poisons and drugs act at the synapse by replacing, decreasing or enhancing the amount of neurotransmitter.
They can do this because their molecules have shapes similar to various neurotransmitters.
Various chemical molecules have distinguishing 3-D characteristics.
Binding then influences the firing of the receiving cell
Some drugs, call agonists, mimic the action of neurotransmitters
I. Poison of black widow
II. Nicotine
f. Antagonist drugs work by opposing or blocking neurotransmitters
I. Snake venom
II. Poisons

VII.
A. Hormones

1. Endocrine System

i. made up of a network of glands.

ii. uses hormones to carry its messages

2. hormone functions:

i. delivers messages to nearby specific receptors

analogy: hormones act like a global e-mail system

ii. manages testosterone and estrogen in the body

iii. pituitary gland - balances sexual behavior

a. this gland uses a special hormone to monitor growth - too much of this hormone results in gigantism, too little results in dwarfism.

iiii. the pancriatic hormone = insulin-> uses sugar from the blood.

iiiii. cortisol = stress hormone

iiiiii. epinephrine = adrenaline.


VIII. Nervous System Organization

A. Central Nervous System - the brain and spinal cord.

1. gives the ability to process information and stimuli

2. INCREDIBLY fragile

3. reflexes

i. involuntary automatic behaviors

ii. initiated by the spinal cord

iii. babies are born with:

a. rooting reflex

b. grasp reflex

c. Babinski reflex

B. Peripheral Nervous System - all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body.

1. somatic nervous system - consists of all the nerves that connect to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles.

2. sensory neurons - messages coming from the sensory organs to the CNS are carried bu one set of neurons in the somatic nervous system.

3. motor neurons - messages going out from the CNS

4. autonomic nervous system - responsible for involuntary tasks, such as heart rate, digestion, pupil dilation.

5. interneurons - neurons within the central nervous system that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory and motor neurons.

6. PNS is split into 2 parts:

i. sympathetic nervous system - arouses the body

ii. parasympathetic nervous system - calms the body.

**example: If Tom is being bullied by Jerry, Tom’s symapthetic nervous system would kick into “fight or flight” mode ; after Tom either fights or flees, his parasympathetic nervous system regulates his heartbeat and calms him down.


IX. Tour Through the Brain

A. Lower level Brain Sturctures

Localization of function- Certain brain structures are specialized to perform certain tasks
a. Most parts of both the human and nonhuman brain are not specialized, and perform integrated and overlapping functions

i. The Hindbrain- Automatic behaviors and survival responses

Medulla- Base of the brain, affects automatic body functions such as breathing and heartbeat.
a. Necessary for survival, neither humans nor animals can survive its destruction

i. In 1968, Senator Robert Kennedy was shot in this part of the head and died

Pons- Located above the medulla, and is involved in respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming.
a. Contains axons that cross from one side of the brain to the other, which is why it is called the pons, Latin for “bridge”

Cerebellum- Located at the base of brain behind the medulla and pons. Coordinates fine muscle movement, balance, perception, and cognition.
a. The cerebellum is one of the first areas of the brain that is depressed by alcohol, so roadside tests for drunk driving are measuring the cerebellum’s functioning.

b. Latin for “little brain”

ii. The Midbrain- Located in the middle of the brain

Contains neural centers that help us orient our eye and body movements to visual and auditory stimuli
Works with the pons to help control sleep and level of arousal
Responsible for coordinating movement patterns, sleep, and arousal
Reticular Formation- Diffuse set of neurons that screen incoming information and control arousal
a. Without reticular formation, would not be alert or even conscious

iii. The Forebrain- Upper level brain structures, largest and most prominent

Thalmus- Located at the top of the brain stem, relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalmus- Located beneath the thalmus, responsible for emotions and drives (hunger, thirst, sex and aggression), and regulates internal environment, including temperature control by the regulating of the endocrine system.
a. Hypothalmus influences the pituitary gland through direct neural connections and by releasing its own hormones into the blood supply of the pituitary

Limbic System- Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory
B. The Cerebral Cortex- Thin surface layers on the cerebral hemispheres that regulates the most complex behaviors, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes

i. The Frontal lobes- Two lobes at the front of the brain governing motor control, speech production, and high functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, and memory

Motor control- Motor cortex sends messages to the muscles and glands
Speech production- Located in left frontal lobe in the Broca’s area
a. 1865 French physician Paul Broca was the first to discover that patients with damage to this area had a great difficulty speaking but could comprehend written or spoken language.

i. Later known as Broca’s asphasia

Higher functions- Thinking, personality, emotion, and memory. Damage to the frontal lobes affects motivation, drives, creativity, self-awareness, initiative, reasoning, and emotional behaviors.
a. Abnormalities observed in patients with schizophrenia

X. Phineas Gage- 1848

Blown through head with metal rod hitting frontal lobes
Injury caused personality change
i. Before- Persistent, shrewd, energetic and efficient

ii. After- capricious, impatient, obstinate and fickle

c. Suffered epileptic seizures for rest of life

d. Shows that frontal lobes are involved in emotion, motivation and cognition

XI. Parietal Lobes

Parietal Lobes- Two lobes at the tope of the brain where bodily sensations are interpreted
i. Sensations such as pressure, pain, touch, temperature and location of body parts

b. Sensation is not experienced until the neuron messages reach the parietal lobes

c. Motor Cortex- located at back of frontal lobe

i. Controls voluntary movement

Somatosensory Cortex- receives information about touch
Each part of the body has a spot on these two cortexes
i. The more important body parts have a larger area

ii. The face and hands have the largest area of tissue

iii. More sensitive areas that require more control have larger areas

iv. The finer the control, the greater the location on motor cortex

XII. Temporal Lobes

Temporal Lobes- Two lobes on each side of the brain above the ears involved in audition, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
Auditory Cortex- top front of each temporal lobe
i. Processes sound

c. Senses such as vision and sound are combined here

d. Wernicke’s Area- section of left temporal lobe responsible for language comprehension

i. Discovered by Carl Wernicke

ii. Damage to this area causes inability to understand information given

iii. Wernicke’s Aphasia- Speech is often unintelligible, containing made up words or word substitution

XIII. Occipital Lobes

Occipital Lobes- Two lobes at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception
Damage here can produce blindness even thought eyes and neural connection is normal
Interpret shape, color and motor perception
XIV. Association Areas

a. Association Areas- So-called quiet areas in the cerebral cortex involved in interpreting, integrating, and action on information processed by other parts of the brain

i. Do not produce anything if stimulated

ii. Associate various areas and functions of the brain

b. Perform intangible or inviewable tasks related to lobes in proximity

c. “Uncommitted” area is 75% of the cortex

XV. Lateralization- Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain for particular operations

a. Left and right hemispheres of the brain control opposite sides of the body

i. Injury on one side of the brain can cause paralysis on opposite side of the body

b. Each hemisphere has areas of specialization

i. Left hemisphere damage led to problems with language, math, reasoning, and other higher mental processes

XVI. Split-Brain Research

Split-Brain- Surgical separation of the brain’s two hemispheres used medically to treat severe epilepsy; split-brain patients provided data on the functions of the two hemispheres
Corpus Callosum- Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the brain’s left and right hemispheres
example/analogy: the corpus callosum connects the brain’s left and right hemispheres just as a bridge connects two land masses
Severe epilepsy patients undergo surgery to cut the corpus collosum to stop the spread of their seizures
XVII. Functioning after split-brain surgery

a. Most patients show very few outward changes

b. Changes appear in specialized testing

c. The brain receives and sends messages to and from the opposite side of the body

i. Vision is different, the eyes send messages to opposites sides but then sends it to the opposite hemisphere

ii. This is so that specialized areas can interpret the information

d. Split-brain patients can see but can’t send the information to the left hemisphere to speak what it is

XVIII. Hemispheric Specialization

95% of adults’ left hemisphere specializes in language functions and analytical functions
Right hemisphere specializes in non-verbal abilities such as perceptual, spatiomanipulativity, and complex word comprehension
Different aspects of personality appear in different hemispheres
XIX. Lefties

a. 68% of lefties and 97% of right-handers have their major language areas on the left hemisphere

i. Right hemisphere is dominant for motor in lefties, but other skills are localized in the regular areas

b. Lefties are known for achievement in abstract fields

i. Right hemisphere responsible for imagery and visualizing 3-D, it may help lefties draw

c. Lefties tend to recover from strokes that damage the language areas because their nonverbal areas can compensate for it better

XX. The “Neglected Right-Brain”

Often said that underuse of the right hemisphere causes lack of creativity
Each hemisphere works together equally and compensates for each other
Every neuron overlaps and is synchronized to flow together

XXI. Our Genetic Inheritance:

behavioral genetics - the study of the relative effects of heredity and the environmental on behavioral and cognitive processes
evolutionary psychology - studies the ways in which Darwin’s theory of natural selection and adaption are connected to behavior and cognitive processes
XXII. Behavioral Genetics: Is it Nature or Nurture?

a person consists of 23 chromosomes from his/her mother and 23 chromosomes from his/her father
a chromosome is a chemical molecule (DNA) which is located in the mother’s egg cell and the father’s sperm cell
genes are the basic units of heredity
analogy: genes are the basic units of heredity just as atoms are the basic units of matter
certain characteristics/traits are polygenic
polygenic - the characteristics are controlled by multiple genes
certain polygenic genes can be multifactorial
multifactorial - characters that are influenced by multiple genes, the environment, and social aspects
examples of polygenic genes: eye color and hair color
example of multifactorial gene: height
genes are split into two categories:
dominant genes - reveals its trait whenever the gene is present
recessive genes - expressed ONLY if the other gene that it is paired with is also recessive
for example, a person can only have Cystic Fibrosis if both their parents were carriers of the recessive gene for Cystic Fibrosis
if parents are scared that they may be carriers of a recessive gene that may lead to genetic diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis, they are able to obtain genetic counseling
genetic counseling - calculates the risk of the potential offspring inheriting a genetic disorder
how do scientists study human inheritance?
1. twin studies
- twins have a uniquely high proportion of shared genes
- identical: one egg splits into two individuals
- share 100% of their genes
- fraternal: two separate eggs
- share 50% of their genes
- example of helpfulness of twin studies:
-if a specific trait is influenced by heredity, identical twins should be more alike than fraternal twins because identical twins share 100% of their genes
2. family studies
- if a specific trait is inherited, there should by an increased trait similarity among blood relatives!
3. adoption studies
- help to discern the difference between the hereditary factors that develop in an adopted child versus the environmental factors that may occur when the child is not with their biological parents
4. genetic abnormalities
- study mutations and an odd number of chromosomes that may have been passed onto the child
- example: an extra segment of the 21st chromosome may lead to Down’s Syndrome
XXIII. Overcoming Genetic Misconceptions:

heritability estimates do not apply to the individual
when talking about statistics or the proportion of how one trait affects people, it relates to an entire group of people, NOT just one individual
we each have a unique set of genes that can only be studied through group variation
genes and the environment are inseparable
genes and the environment are interrelated by the biophysical model
all biological, physiological, and social forces are symbiotic
genetic trains are not fixed or inflexible
genetic studies do not account for environmental factors that may affect a person's traits, etc.
XXIV. Evolutionary Psychology:

Charles Darwin - 1859
believed that natural forces select traits that are beneficial to a organism’s survival
natural selection - one particular genetic trait is chosen as superior to another trait; it give an advantage over other organisms
adaptation - a behavior that an animal adopts in order to survive in its environment
for example, over time, hummingbirds have grown longer beaks in order to reach inside flowers for pollen
long beak =dominant gene=beneficial
short beak = recessive gene=difficulty
reproduction is key to survival
genetic mutations also help to explain behavior; everyone carries at least one gene that has been changed from its original form (mutated)
social and cultural factors can affect evolution
evolutionary psychology suggests that certain genes are still in the gene pool today because they have helped our ancestors survive over time
therefore they are beneficial to us in some way
nature vs nature debate
nature = heredity
nurture = environment
XXV. Neuroscience:

neuroplasticity - our brains are loose and flexible; our neurons are able to change their structure and pattern
neurogenesis - the production of nerve cells
stem cells - immature cells that can grown ad develop into any type of cell that is needed in the body
example: organ cells, brain cells, heart cells, etc.


Interesting Facts

1. There are no pain receptors in the brain, so it can feel no pain (“The Human Brain”).
2. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and makes up 85% of the brain’s weight (Total weight is 3 lbs so that's about 2.55 lbs!) (“The Human Brain”) 3. Albert Einstein’s brain was similar in size to other humans except in the region that is responsible for math and spatial perception (the cerebrum). In that region, his brain was 35% wider than average. (“Brain...”)
4. London taxi drivers are famous for knowing all the London streets by heart, these drivers have a larger than normal hippocampus, especially the drivers who have been on the job longest. The study suggests that as people memorize more and more information, this part of their brain continues to grow. (“Whats your...”).
5. Phineas Gage YouTube:
__http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4fGlny5cPg&feature=related__
6. While awake, your brain generates between 10 and 23 watts of power–or enough energy to power a light bulb. (“Brain”). 7. Neurotransmitters: A Full Explanation
__http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haNoq8UbSyc__

Works Cited
"Brain, Brain Information, Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic." Science and Space Facts, Science and Space, Human Body, Health, Earth, Human Disease - National Geographic. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/brain-article/>.
"The Human Brain - Welcome." Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/index.html>.
"The Human Brain." Learner.org. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/brain/index.html>.
"What's Your Learning Style?" Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. Web. 30 Mar. 2011. <http://psychology.about.com/>.