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Chapter 1, Period 7
Chapter 2, Period 6
Chapter 2, Period 7
Chapter 4, Period 6
Chapter 4, Period 7
Chapter 5, Period 6
Chapter 5, Period 7
Chapter 6, Period 6
Chapter 6, Period 7
Chapter 7, Period 6
Chapter 7, Period 7
Chapter 8, Period 6
Chapter 8, Period 7
Chapter 9, Period 6
Chapter 9, Period 7
Chapter 10, Period 7
Chapter 12, Period 6
Chapter 12, Period 7
Chapter 13, Period 6
Chapter 13, Period 7
Chapter 14, Period 6
Chapter 14, Period 7
Chapter 15, Period 6
Chapter 15, Period 7
Chapter 16, Period 6
Chapter 16, Period 7
Chapter 6, Period 6
Chapter 6: Learning
: The process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
: Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditional stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
: Stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) without previous conditioning
Unconditional Response (UCR)
: Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that occurs without previous conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
: A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
: Previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), now causes a conditioned response (CR)
Conditional Response (CR)
: Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that occurs because of previous repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Conditional Emotional Response (CER)
: A classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS)
: Learned response to stimuli that are like the original conditioned stimulus
: Learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli
: Gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR)
: Reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR)
: A neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS)
: Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences (also known as instrumental or Skinnerian conditioning)
: Strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
: Weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Law of Effect
: Thorndike’s rule that the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence
: Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy a biological need, such as food, water, and sex
: Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their learned value, such as money and material possessions
: Adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
: Taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
Using a naturally occurring high-frequency response to reinforce and increase low-frequency responses
Every correct response is reinforced
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement:
Some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule:
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio is fixed
Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule:
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies
Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule:
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) if fixed
Variable Interval (VI) Schedule:
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies
Reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response
Adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
A cue that signals when a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement
Cognitive Social Theory:
Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning on behavior
Sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution
A mental image of a three-dimensional space that an organism has navigated
Hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs
Learning new behavior or information by watching others (also known as social learning or modeling)
a classically conditioned negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness
Built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
Conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response patterns
An involuntary bodily process (such as blood pressure or heart rate) is recorded, and the information is fed back to an organism to increase voluntary control over that bodily function
Feedback that is added that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.
A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience
Pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
A gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed
A way to evaluate an unknown quantity by comparison of a sequence of known qualities
Trained an animal to get a pellet each time it pushed a lever, recording the number of responses made
Continuous vs. Partial Reinforcement:
Continuous- every correct response is reinforced; partial- some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
Watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
a relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes that results from practice or experience
all learned behaviors or mental processes (e.g. playing catch)
- will be able to use relative permanence for the rest of your life
how children learn cognitive and motor skills
how previous experiences help explain problems people face today
how attitudes, behaviors, and prejudices are learned
- What a person learns can be suppressed
process of learning associations between environmental
stimuli and behavioral responses
- 2 most common types of learning: classical and operant
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Discovery of Classical Conditioning
- He won Nobel Prize for studies on what role saliva plays in digestion.
- He tested salivary responses with dogs (see image below).
- To do this, he attached funnel to salivary glands to measure saliva levels.
- He questioned whether dogs had more saliva with dry food vs. wet food and if nonfood items required different saliva amounts.
- The outcome of his experiment is that many dogs salivated at the sight of food, the smell of food, or the sight of the person who delivered the food.
- This showed that salavation is a
(it it largely involuntary, not acquired by learning).
- This type of learning is called
(learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned one to create a conditioned response).
- It is the most basic way that all animals learn most responses, emotions, and attitudes
stimulus that causes an unconditioned response without first having any previous conditioning
unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus with no previous conditioning
before conditioning, a stimulus that doesn’t naturally bring about the necessary response
previously neutral stimulus that causes a conditioned response
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs due to repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus
- When a neutral stimulus becomes linked to the unconditioned stimulus, it is called
Watson and Classical Conditioning
showed how fear can be classically conditioned.
- Tested on Albert, an 11- month-old healthy baby.
- Albert reached for a rat they used to see whether he was afraid of rats. He was not.
- They then banged a steel bar with a hammer and he began to cry.
- Then, he would cry when he saw the rat with no noise.
- This is a
conditioned emotional response:
classically conditioned response to a once neutral stimulus.
- This method has been criticised for ethical reasons.
- Watson emphasized observable behaviors over the idea of the scientific study of the mind.
- He founded
behavior is a result of stimuli within the environment and observable responses
- The experiment showed us that many likes and dislikes are conditioned emotional responses
Fine-Tuning Classical Conditioning
a learned response to stimuli that are similar to the beginning conditioned stimulus
a learned response to a specific stimuli
- Classical conditioning is relatively permanent.
gradual weakening of a previously conditioned response
*extinction is not unlearning. The stimulus can be conditioned faster the second time it is introduced.
the reappearance of a one extinguished conditioned response
a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus via continuous pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus
Temporal Relationships between CS and UCS
: present CS first and then introduce the UCS while the CS is still evident
: present the CS, then a short break, then present the UCS.
present the CS and UCS at the same time.
: The CS is presented after the UCS.
learning that has voluntary responses controlled by their consequences
- organisms prefer behavior that produces an effect on the environment
strengthens a response and makes it apt to occur
weakens a response and makes it less inclined to occur
- In classical conditioning, the organism’s response is involuntary, whereas in operant conditioning, the response is voluntary.
- Both forms interact to produce and maintain behavior.
Thorndike and Skinner
- Edward Thorndike was among the first people to examine how voluntary behaviors are affected by the consequences they produce.
- He put a cat inside a puzzle box, and the only way the cat could get out was to pull a rope or step on a peddle.
- The cat eventually figured out what to do through trial and error.
law of effect:
the probability of an action being repeated it strengthened when it received a positive response
- This was the first step to understand how voluntary behaviors are modified by the responses they receive
- Skinner extended on this. He believed that behavior is due to conscious choice.He thought that to understand behavior, we need to consider observable, external stimuli
-To test this, he used the Skinner Box.
- He trained an animal to push a lever in order to get food.
- This proved that reinforcement occurs after the fact.
- Skinner urges us to check the respondent’s behavior to see if it has changed.
Understanding Operant Conditioning
- Reinforcement can be grouped into primary or secondary or positive or negative.
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy biological needs (e.g. sex, food, water)
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they have a learned value (e.g. money, clothing)
adding a stimulus to strengthen a response and make it more likely to occur (e.g. tickling your baby to get the baby to smile at you)
taking away a stimulus to strengthen a response that will make it more likely to occur (e.g.hugging your baby so that it’s crying stops)
using a naturally occurring high-frequency response to increase a low-frequency response (e.g. making yourself do your homework before you watch television)
Schedules of Reinforcement
- This refers to the rate at which responses are reinforced.
every correct response is followed by reinforcement
some correct responses are reinforced (e.g.receiving a good grade on a test for which you studied)
- Continuous reinforcement leads to faster learning.
- Behavior is more resistant to extinction under partial schedules.
- Sometimes we use a process called
, where you reinforce small steps on the way to the desired behavior.
Four Partial (Intermittent) Schedules of Reinforcement
- There are four partial schedules of reinforcement:
(occurs after a predetermined set of responses),
unpredictably, amount varies),
(occurs after a certain amount of time has passed),
(occurs unpredictably, time
- One way to teach complex behaviors that will most likely not occur on their own is by
reinforces a series of successively improving steps
leading to the final goal response.
- Unlike reinforcement, punishment is used to decrease the strength of a response.
- There are two types of punishment;
(addition of some variable that will prevent the undesired response from occurring
again) (e.g. a student is given an extra essay to write if she does not pay attention in class) and
(removal of a variable that
will prevent the undesired response from occurring again) (e.g. a student cannot participate in a sport because she has too many absences).
- In order to be effective, punishment must be both immediate and consistent.
- Side effects of punishment
builds tensions between the punisher and the recipient.
punishment can lead to retaliation which often leads to frustration and then aggression.
punishment is not enjoyable, so if one knows that they are going to get punished they will avoid that person or environment
entirely (e.g. a girl will delay going to see a friend if she knows she will be yelled at)
: sometimes by punishing such as spanking or hitting, the parent can serve as a model which may increase the undesired behavior instead of decreasing it.
punishment only temporarily stops the behavior (e.g. not copying homework from the back of the book when a teacher walks by).
: after a period of time where you try and fail to control your environment, you acquire learned helplessness which may lead
you to give up and make no more attempts (e.g. why a person stays in an abusive relationship).
Comparing Classical and Operant Conditioning
- emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior. ( Beliefs, expectations, motivations, and emotions affect learning
Kohler’s Study of Insight
- German psychologist
was interested in studying how people learned and more importantly how they figured out complex problems.
- He conducted several experiments with caged chimpanzees where he observed them trying to reach a banana that is out of reach.
- He observed that they would sit and think and then have a flash of
and figure out how to reach the banana.
- He called this type of learning
Tolman’s Study of Latent Learning
Edward C. Tolman
conducted experiments with rats in mazes. He came up with the idea that as the rats wandered through the maze aimlessly,
without rewards, they developed a
, or a mental representation of a maze.
- To test this he had three groups: the first group wandered around with no reinforcement, t
he second group was always reinforced, and the third
group began reinforcement on day 11.
- The third group learned quickly and caught up to speed with those rats in the second group who had
been reinforced the entire time, thus proving the theory of the
(hidden learning that occurs without external signs).
- Learning through observing or by imitating what those around us are doing.
- Watching others helps us avoid dangerous stimuli, and shows us how to act in social situations.
- 4 seperate processes
The Adaptive Brain
- Our brains develop better when exposed to a stimulating environment-thicker cortex, more branching of dendrites, myelin sheathing
*Think of babies who have intricate mobiles above
their beds compared to babies who are never exposed to anything but blank walls and ceiling. The babies who have the
will havemore fully developed synapses and will have learned
much more than those in
Evolution and Learning
-Humans and animals have some inborn biological inclinations that help to guarantee survival
are involuntary responses to a stimuli
are innate behaviors of a particular species
*No birds are ever given directions to fly south in the winter, but they have an instinct for which way to travel.
-The evolutionary perspective states that these innate tendencies are not sufficient for survival and that is why learning takes place.
Classical Conditioning and Taste Aversion
- Have you ever eaten at a restaurant and gotten food poisoning? After such an experience, did you ever want to eat there again? Probably n
This is due to an involuntary, classically conditioned response called
(negative reaction to a particular taste that is associated with
nausea or illness).
-Evolutionary perspective: this helps the human species to survive by teaching us to avoid foods that cause us to feel sick
: built-in readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
*Evolutionary phobias of snakes, darkness, etc.
-Garcia’s Taste Aversion Experiment
-gave lab rats flavored water and a drug that induced nausea
-the rats then refused to drink the flavored water
-however, a shock or stunning noise paired with the drug did not produce taste aversion
Operant Conditioning and Instinctive Drift
-Breland’s Chicken/Baseball Experiment
-taught chicken to pull a loop that swung a bat
-later, the chicken learned to hit the ball with the bat
-however, chicken would never run to first base, but always chased the ball as if it were food
-the learned task of hitting the ball and running to first base will not overpower the chicken’s biological instinct
conditioned responses drift back toward innate response patterns
Using Conditioning and Learning Principles
-Covergirl makeup foundation (
is paired with Taylor Swift
-attractive and talented Taylor Swift = the
-because of conditioning, we have a positive response to the image of Taylor Swift
-we then associate Covergirl makeup
with the positive response =
-Clark Study in 1939
-showed that given the option between white or black dolls, both white and black children preferred the white dolls
-Clark deduced that the children had learned to associate negative, inferior qualities with darker skin
-negative effects of classical conditioning
-principle of classical conditioning used to help alcoholics
-patients gargle alcohol before taking a nausea producing drug
-ideally, the patient then develops taste aversion
-Phobias (Behavior Therapy)
-Example: cockroach (neutral stimulus)
-we develop fear after pairing it with an unconditioned stimulus (parent screaming at sight of the cockroach)
-over time we develop the conditioned response (being afraid at the mere sight of the roach)
-Also known as:
: an involuntary bodily process is recorded, and the information is fed back to an organism to increase voluntary control over that
*Think of a man who is constantly hooked up to a machine that reads his heart rate. Over time and with continual exposure to the feedback of the machine, this man will be able to control his own heart rate. (Biofeedback)
: something added that increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
-the learned value of the relief from the discomfort of increased heart rate is the
-the biofeedback is the
-Accidental Reinforcement and Superstition
-eight pigeons separately caged with a food dispenser that released food every 15 seconds no matter what the birds did
-6 of the 8 birds developed repeated behaviors, even though they were not necessary to receive food
-the birds associated the food with the behavior they had whenever the food was dispensed
*Apparent in humans with superstitions such as ‘knocking on wood’ or wearing the same pair of lucky socks for every track meet
- Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given.
- Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions, and schools
- Example: Gold trophy on AP Psych tests for an A. Can trade in trophy for a small prize.
-observational learning from media
*Jared Jewelers commercials that portray a woman beaming at her boyfriend after receiving a necklace, and the boyfriend then wrapping his arm around his girlfriend as they live happily ever after
-observation of violent behavior is correlated to, and has been shown to lead to, desensitization and aggression
- Russian psychologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion. He observed that dogs would salivate before they were given food. He came to the conclusion that they must have learned to salivate. Discovered that this was due to classical conditioning (learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response).
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner
- Conducted experiments to demonstrate how fear could be classically conditioned. They observed an 11-month old named Albert as he played with a rat, and saw that he was not afraid. Since infants are naturally frightened by loud noises, they paired loud noises with Albert playing with the rat. Now, when Albert saw the rat, he immediately started crying, which became known as a conditioned emotional response. Criticism include: violation of many ethical guidelines for research, for they did not extinguish Albert’s fear.
- First to examine how voluntary behaviors are influenced by their consequences. He called this the law of effect (rewarded behavior is more likely to reoccur). To test this he created a crate for cats in which they had to operate latches in order to get out. He found that is the action leads to rewards, that action is imprinted in the brain.
Strict behaviorist who used the Skinner Box to demonstrate operant conditioning. He emphasized that reinforcement and punishment are defined after the fact
Formed the Premack principle which says that a naturally occurring, high frequency response can be used to reinforce and increase low-frequency response
Posed different types of problems to chimps and apes decided that animals had insight, which is sudden understanding of a problem that implies a solution
Studied rats wandering within a maze, and developed the terms “cognitive map” and “latent learning.” Realized that learning was taking place even though the rats were not being reinforced or conditioned.
A proponent of modeling, he researched observational learning through experiments with children, aggression and a Bobo doll. The children reacted to the Bobo doll in ways similar to those of the adult models they watched. He discovered that we often learn by watching others.
This is a video that explains classical conditioning.
This is a video that focuses on the “Little Albert” experiment and explains the purpose of the test.
3. Before Ivan Pavlov began a career in psychology, he planned on pursuing a religious career. He abandoned his religious career, deciding to focus on physiology. His study of the physiology of digestion led him to study conditioned responses, which eventually led to his experiment on the salivation of dogs (Ivan).
4. During one stay in New York, Skinner stumbled across the works of Watson and Pavlov, sparking his interest in the subject (Bauer).
5. Studies have shown that taste aversion does not occur immediately after eating food. It can be acquired after time lapses of hours in between the food and the onset of illness (Gorn).
Bauer, Amy, and Christine Maracich. “B.F. Skinner” Fun Facts. 31 March 2011.
Gorn, Gerald J., W.J. Jacobs, and Michael Mana. “Observations on Awareness and Conditioning.” 31 March 2011.
Psychology in Action, Eighth Edition
. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2007.
"Ivan Pavlov - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 31 Mar 2011
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