Chapter 7 Memory Vocabulary

The Nature of Memory
  1. Chunking- Grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit (or chunk)
  2. Constructive process- Organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memory
  3. elaborative rehearsal- Linking new information to previously stored material (also known as deeper levels of processing)
  4. encoding-translating information into neural codes (language)
  5. encoding specificity principle- Retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when information was encoded
  6. episodic memory- A part of explicit/declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events’ a mental diary of a person’s life
  7. explicit (declarative) memory- Subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences
  8. implicit (nondeclarative) memory- Subsystem within long-term memory that consists of unconscious procedural skills, simple classically conditioned responses, and priming
  9. levels of processing- The degree or depth of mental processing that occurs when mental is initially encountered determines how well it’s later remembered
  10. long-term memory- Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time its capacity is virtually limitless, and its duration is relatively permanent
  11. maintenance rehearsal- A method of memorization in which the person continuously and consciously repeats the information over and over again
  12. Memory- An internal record or representation of some prior event or experience
  13. parallel distributed processing- Memory results from weblike connections among interacting processing units operating simultaneously, rather than sequentially (also known as the connectionist model)
  14. priming- Prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has no conscious memory of the initial learning and storage
  15. recall- Retrieving a memory using a general cue
  16. recognition- Retrieving a memory using a specific cue
  17. retrieval- Recovering information from memory storage
  18. retrieval cue- A clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall or retrieval of a stored pieces of information from long-term memory
  19. semantic memory- A part of explicit/declarative memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary
  20. sensory memory- First memory stage that holds sensory information; relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds
  21. short-term memory- Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM); capacity is limited to five to nine items and duration is about 30 seconds
  22. storage- Retaining neutrally coded information over time

  1. consolidation- Process by which neural changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable
  2. distributed practice- Practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods
  3. massed practice- learning in which the time spent doing so is massed into long, unbroken intervals
  4. proactive interference- what occurs when old information leads to forgetting new information
  5. relearning- Learning material a second time, which usually takes less time than original learning (also called the savings method)
  6. retroactive interference- Old information interferes with remembering old information; backward-acting interference
  7. serial position effect- information at the beginning and end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
  8. sleeper effect- Information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
  9. source amnesia- forgetting the true source of a memory (also called source confusion or source misattribution)
  10. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon- feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it

Biological Bases of Memory
  1. Alzheimer’s disease- Progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
  2. anterograde amnesia- inability to form new memories after a brain injury: forward-acting amnesia
  3. long-term potentiation- long-lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning and memory
  4. retrograde amnesia- loss of memory for events before a brain injury: backward-acting amnesia

Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory
  1. mnemonic device- memory-improvement technique based on encoding items in a special way

Chapter 7: Memory
People to Remember

Fegus Craik- worked with Robert Lockhart. first suggested the levels of processing model. this suggests that a person’s memory is based off of how deeply that person intakes the information. For example, when processing is shallow, not much memory is formed. When more thought and activity is done with the memory, is it stored deeper and remembered longer.

Robert Lockhart- worked with Fergus Craik. first suggested the levels of processing model. this suggests that a person’s memory is based off of how deeply that person intakes the information. For example, when processing is shallow, not much memory is formed. When more thought and activity is done with the memory, is it stored deeper and remembered longer.

George Sperling- one of the first to research short sensory messages. He put 12 letters in a 4x3 box and flashed them quickly to people. At first the could only recall a few letters. However, he told them to say the first row of letters when a high tone played, the second row with a medium tone, and the third row with a low tone. Using this method, almost all could recall the letters. This proved that memories in the sensory memory can be accessed easily if done so quickly.

Godden and Baddeley- showed how context affects learning and memory. They gave underwater divers a list of 40 words to learn either on land or underwater. The divers could better recall the words they learned underwater, when they were underwater. And the same went for the words they learned on land. They could recall those words better on land.

*Herman Ebbinghaus- often made himself the subject of his experimental studies of learning and forgetting. He measured memory performance by leaning a list of nonsense syllables. In his trials, he choose three-letter nonsense syllables (like SIB and RAL) that don’t have the meanings and associations that words do. After he memorized the list perfectly, he tested himself an hour later and only knew 44% of the syllables. A day later he only knew 35%; and a week later he knew 21%. His research suggest that we often retain some memory for things we’ve learned, even when we seem to have forgotten them completely
*denotes Movers and Shakers list

John Donovan and David Radosevich compared 63 separate studies and found that distributed practice produced superior memory and learning compared with mass practice. Subsequent analyses, however, suggested that the nature of the task being practiced, the intertrial time interval, and the interaction between these two variables significantly moderated the relationship between practice conditions and performance. In addition, significantly higher effect sizes were found in studies with low methodological rigor as compared with those studies higher in rigor.

Ross and Millson- deigned cross-cultural study to explore cultural difference in memory and forgetting. Compared American and Ghanian college students’ abilities to remember oral stories. Students listened to stories without taking notes and without being told they would be tested. Two weeks later asked to write down everything they could remember of the story. Result: Ghanian students had a better recall. Why? Because their culture has developed greater skill in encoding oral info. because of long cultural oral tradition.

Karl Lashley- experimented on rats. Purpose: to find where memories are located. Experiment: Teach rats a standard learning maze. Surgically remove tiny portions of rats’ brains. Retest memory of maze. Results: Rats were able to run the maze regardless of the area of cortex he removed. Conclusion: Determined that memories were not localized and rather, distributed throughout the cortex (in actuality it is distributed in discrete locations throughout the brain, not just the cortex).

Chapter 7 – Memory

The Nature of Memory

Memory – an internal record of representation of some prior event or experience

· Without memory we have no past or future because we cannot remember what has happened or form ideas of what will happen based on what we know.
· Memory may be a record of some event or experience but it is highly susceptible to error.
· Memory is a constructive process- organizing and shaping information during processing, storage and retrieval of memories
· We as human beings organize and shape info the moment it’s processed, stored, or received by our brain.

Ø Four Models of Memory: A Brief Overview
§ Information Processing Approach
· Memory may be faulty and with error but it is highly functional and biologically well adapted for everyday life became it filters and sorts through the loads of information we receive throughout the day and then it stores and retrieves information necessary for survival.
¨ Information Processing Model-Info goes thru three basic operations:
Ø Encoding
Ø Storage
Ø Retrieval
§ Our brain encodes sensory information(sound, visual, and other senses) into a neural “language” it can understand
§ Then its stored in our brain
§ To retrieve the information, the brain must locate the appropriate “memory files”
¨ Computers and brains don’t work in the same way; human brains may be fuzzy and forgetful, while computers simply store data on a hard drive where it’s just there.
¨ Computers store information sequentially- orderly, logical fashion
¨ Human memory stores simultaneously- through many networks
§ Parallel Distributed Processing Model
· PDP ( parallel Distributed Processing) – memory results from web like connections among interacting processing units operating simultaneously, rather that sequentially( also known as the connectionist model)
· Instead of recognizing patters as a sequence o information bits, our brain and memory processes perform multiple parallel operations all at one time mainly because our memory is spread out throughout an entire web like network of processing units
§ Ex. If were swimming and we see a large fin nearby, we would stop to try and remember althea types of fish se know; our brain conducts a mental parcel search and we notice the color of the fish, the fin and the potential danger all at the same time
· PDP model is consistent with neurological information of brain activity and has been useful in explaining perception, language, and decision making, while allowing for a faster response time
§ Levels of Processing Model
· A level of Processing- the degree of depth of mental processing that occurs when material is initially encountered determines how well it’s later remembered.
· Levels of processing model suggests that memory relies on how deeply we proceeds initial information
¨ Shallow processing
Ø Were ink aware if basic incoming sensory information
Ø Little to no memory formed
¨ Deep Processing
Ø When we use more stuff with the information, like adding meaning, developing organizations and associations, or relating it to things we already know.
§ Ex. If we had to learn all the names of the students of our class, and we had a copy all the names in the class and just repeated them out loud, that would be shallow learning, but if we said the name and grouped them according to initial or we made associations with them like meeting them or adding a distinguishing feature or personality about them
§ Traditional Three – Stage Memory Model
· One of the most widely used is the three-box model.
· Memory requires three storage stages to hold and process information for various lengths of time
¨ (Sensory) – 1st Stage- holds information for short intervals
¨ (Short Term)-2nd Stage- retains info for 30 seconds or less( unless renewed_
¨ (Long Term)- 3rd Stage- relatively permanent damage
v Sensory Memory
§ Sensory Memory- first memory stage that holds sensory information, relatively large capacity but duration only a few seconds
§ Everything we hear, touch, taste, and smell first enters our sensory memory
§ The purpose is to retain the experience long en9ugh to locate and focus on relevant bits of information and transfer them to the next stage of memory.
§ Visual information- iconic memory- visual icon- lasts about half a second
§ Auditory information last about the same time, however a weaker “echo” or echoic memory, of this auditory information can last up to 4 seconds.

Short-Term Memory: Memory’s Second Stage

Temporarily stores and processes the sensory image until brain decides whether or not to send it along to the third stage.

Purpose: Similar to Sensory except they do not store exact duplicates of sensory information but a mixture of perception analyses.

How do I increase capacity?
Maintenance rehearsal: repeating information over and over
Chunking- grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit

STM “Working Memory”

Not only receives information but sends and retrieves information from LTM.

1. Visuospatial Sketchpad- holds and manipulates visual images and spatial information
2. Phonological rehearsal loop- holding and manipulating verbal information
3. Central executive- supervises and coordinates the other two components along with material retrieved from long-term memory.

Long-Term Memory (LTM): The Third Stage of Memory

Long-term memory (LTM): purpose is to serve as a storehouse for information that must be kept for long periods of time
  • Long-term memory has relatively unlimited capacity and duration
  • It’s harder to find information the more a person learns because information transferring from STM to LTM is “tagged” and stored. If it is stored improperly is causes problems during retrieval. Clear labeling helps prevent mislabeling.

Types of Long-Term Memory
LTM is divided into two major systems– explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (nondeclarative) memory.

1. Explicit: Intentional learning or conscious knowledge; aka declarative memory because if asked to recall, people can “declare” it.
Can be sub-divided into two parts– semantic memory and episodic memory.
Semantic memory: memory for facts and general knowledge; internal mental dictionary or encyclopedia of stored knowledge.
Episodic memory: explicit memory of out own past experiences; records major events that happen to us or take place in our presence; can be short-term and long-term.

2. Implicit: Refers to unintentional learning or unconscious knowledge; memory without awareness. Muscle memory; non-declarative. Consists of procedural motor skills (i.e. tying shoes, riding bike, etc.)
    • Includes priming- form of memory occurs when a prior exposure to stimulus facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information (i.e. fear increasing after reading a Stephen King novel; romantic feelings increased after romantic movie.)

Improving Long-Term Memory:
  1. Organization:
    1. To extend capacity for short-term memory = organize information into chunks
    2. To encode LTM = organize material into hierarchies
      1. arranging related items into few broad categories which are divided and subdivided
  2. Elaborative Rehearsal
    1. Deals with encoding STM and LTM; deeper levels of processing
    2. maintenance rehearsal: repetition of information
      1. shallow processing: works for information not needed in LTM
    3. immediate goal is to understand and to memorize
  3. Retrieval Cues
    1. any stimulus that can begin a retrieval process from LTM
    2. Specific (recognition) and general (recall)

Using Retrieval Strategies on Exams
Recreating original learning conditions = encoding specificity principle
    1. Context and retrieval = testing better when sitting in same seat and position as when you studied the material
    2. Mood congruence = associating emotions with particular events
    3. State-dependent retrieval = if learning something while under influence of something, recalling information is easier while under that same influence.

How quickly do we forget? Research Findings:
Hermann Ebbinghaus: pioneer memory researcher; introduced experimental study of learning and forgetting in 1885; “forgetting curve”
Relearning information after having learned and forgotten it takes less time than the original learning period.

Why Do We Forget? Five Key Theories:

Decay Theory
Decay Theory: based on assumption that memory degrades with time
i.e. skills of memory are diminished if not used over time

Interference Theory
Interference Theory: suggests that forgetting is the cause of new memories competing with, or trying to replace, another memory.
Retroactive- learning new information leads to forgetting old material
Proactive- old information leads to forgetting of new information

consolodation: the process by which neural changes become fixed and stable in LTM

Motivated Forgetting Theory
Motivated Forgetting Theory-Our brain wants to forget difficult memories because they caused us stress and/or discomfort.
Suppression- Forgetting these memories consciously
Repression- Forgetting these memories unconsciously
Ex: Telling yourself that you will succeed on your speech for English class (i.e. suppression)

Encoding Failure Theory
Encoding Failure -Not remembering specific details of something because we do not think that it is important enough to remember

Retrieval Theory
Retrieval Failure-Not remembering a memory stored in the LTM “i.e. blanking out on a test”
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)-Being unable to speak a certain word “i.e. ‘its on the tip of my tongue”

Four factors that contribute to forgetting information:
1.Serial position efffect- we remember information that we study or people that we meet in the beginning (primacy effect) or the end (recency effect).
2.Source Amnesia-forgetting where we heard certain information from or mixing sources of information up.
Ex: Thinking that one friend told you when the psychology homework was done but in actuality it was a different friend.
3.Sleeper Effect- When we hear information from an unreliable source we do not believe but after a certain period of time we experience source amnesia and then believe the information to be true.
4.Spacing of practice- Students should practice distributed practice (i.e. study over longer periods of time versus massed practice (i.e. cramming) because we remember more this way.

Cultural Differences in Memory and Forgetting
A. Ross and Milson Study (1970)
1. Wanted to see if people who do not rely on writing information down to remember in certain cultures had better memory than those who do.
2. Experiment: Gave a lecture to American and Ghanaian students, where they did not take notes, not told they would be tested on it, and later had to write down as much as they remembered
a. Results: Ghanaian students remembered more.
Reason= have more skill in encoding oral information because of oral tradition
b.When encountered with memorizing words=not as successful but schooling can aid in this process
B.Wagner Study (1982)
1.Participants given 7 cards which were then placed faced down, then shown a card and had to say which was its duplicate
a. Results: Despite culture or amount of schooling everyone remembered the last cards (recency effect) but only with those with schooling remembered beginning ones (primacy effect).
b.This is because of rehearsal or repeating the information repeatedly to memorize it which is done in school
Biological Bases of Memory

Neuronal and Synaptic Changes in Memory
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)- When neurons fire repeatedly the pathways become stronger. Caused by 2 ways:
1.Dendrites grow more spines
2.Neurons can release more or less neurotransmitters
Hormonal Changes and Memory
A. When we are stressed or excited our bodies release epinephrine and cortisol
1. Stimulates amygdala (emotion) which stimulates hippocampus and cerebral cortex ( memory)
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2.Flashbulb Memories-remembering certain events with vivid imagery but may not be very accurate

Where Are Memories Located? Tracking Down Memory Traces
A. Lashley Study (1890-1958)
1. Results: We have learned that memory is not stored in a particular area of the brain but in several areas. These include:
a. Amygdala
b. Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum
c. Hippocampal Formation
d. Thalamus
e. Cortex
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Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease
A. Our memories and ability to form new memories are essential to our ability to survive
B. Some memory problems are caused by injury and disease (organic pathology)
C. Most common causes of memory loss are brain injury and Alzheimer’s
1. Traumatic brain injury: skull collides with another object
a. Frontal and temporal lobes most often damaged
b. Most common cause behind neurological issues and often occur due to accidents and gunshot wounds
2. Amnesia divided into retrograde and anterograde
a. In retrograde amnesia, the afflicted cannot recall events that occurred before the incident but can store new memories (possibly because of the lack of consolidation in those memories directly before the incident)
b. In anterograde amnesia, the afflicted cannot form new memories (possibly because neural changes are fixed and do not change)
3. Alzheimer’s disease refers to the mental decline in old age
a. It begins with the normal type of forgetting and progresses to long-term memory loss and general withdrawal
b. Alzheimer’s memory loss is distinct from other types of memory loss because Alzheimer’s sufferers cannot retain facts and memories but do recall conditioned responses and procedural tasksexternal image u3zsVnT-gbqhECt0Qjv0JHNjvZedboU5j3n3V-HiM-9zHtUu9bzl1fCMBI8i1np8P16h-GAQOuFKHJoEPtKU7V3-Be0V9B8qHgiS4TpgJW4qWpuN1mU

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: Memory and the Criminal Justice System
A. Eyewitness Testimony
1. Everyone makes memory lapses, but because of this, eyewitness testimony is flawed.
2. Numerous eyewitness experimental studies show a high percentage of error
3. In experiments eyewitnesses will often accuse an innocent person when shown mug shots and a lineup, neither of which included the actual perpetrators
4. Reasons behind this include familiarity and construction
B. False Versus Repressed Memories
1. Elizabeth Loftus was actually mistaken about the repressed memories and instead created a false memory
2. Under the idea of repression, some thoughts and memories are either actively forgotten or are so terrible that they exist only in the unconscious
3. Therapy is necessary to recover these repressed memories
4. Difficult and controversial topic in psychology
5. Therapists might inadvertently plant or suggest memories in their client’s minds, and source amnesia might also play a role.
6. Very difficult to determine whether recovered memories are true or false
7. The application of psychology into crime demands respect for victims and potential suspects

Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory
- Jean Piaget, recorded his own childhood memories

Understanding Memory Distortions: The Need for Logic, Consistency and Efficiency
- It is common to shape, rearrange and distort our own memories
- It is because our need for logic and consistency
Example: We do not memorize lectures word for word. We remember the general things said and interpret and analyze them our own way.
- Typically memories are efficient and reliable
- Memories help retrieve and store important information essential to survival.
- Memories are stored even as we are sleeping
- We do not remember everything, even the simple things
Example: We lose essential things like cell phone or keys.

Tips for Memory Improvement: Eight Surefire Ways to Improve Your Memory
- We are able to recognize our brains limitations and can discover ways to cope
- Eight different ways to improve memory
1. Pay attention and reduce interference
Example: Don’t watch TV or listen to music while doing homework. Get off Facebook!
2. Use rehearsal techniques
- Duration of short term memory is about thirty seconds
- Relate information to other things
- Make up your own examples
3. Improve your organization
-STM is only capable of memorizing five to nine things
4. Counteract the serial position effect
- We tend to remember things better at the end and beginning. Spend more time focusing on the middle
5. Manage your time
- Avoid cramming
- We don’t remember things when we are drowsy and sleepy
Example: Have five 30-minute study sessions when you are awake and alert. The information will store better during REM sleep
6. Use the encoding specifity principle
- Stay in a familiar environment
- Stay relaxed as if you were in an any day lecture
-Mood Congruent Effect, proves that if you are in the same emotional state taking a test as you were when you learned the information you will perform better
- State-dependent memory proves that if you drink a cup of apple juice before studying you will want one before a test
Example: When it comes to test taking make sure you stay calm and act like it is nothing new. Test taking isn’t that scary.
7. Employ self-monitoring and overlearning
- Stop and test yourself about the information when you are studying
Example: “Check & Review”
- Stop and repeat difficult sentences
- Overlearning, studying the information when you already know it
8.Use mnemonics. Mnemonic devises.
- Method of loci, think of physical objects to memorize
- Peg-word mnemonic, memorize things with a visual.
- Substitute word; use the letters of the words to think of other things.
- Method of word association, use acronyms

A Final Note
- Sometimes our memory can be too clear
-Traumatic events tend to be very detailed memories

Memory Chapter 7 Interesting Facts

  • Godden and Baddeley experiment focused on situated learning. They took a group of scuba divers and taught them a list of words underwater, then a group of people and taught them a list of words on land. The scuba divers recalled the list of words better underwater, where they learned them, verses recalling them on land. Same went for the group that learned the words on land, they recalled the list better on land than in the water.

  • The phrase “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks” applies to older adults as “the quickest way to become an old dog is to quit learning new tricks.” The memory of older adults become less efficient so they do not learn as quickly as younger people. However, they have more retrievable information to compare new experiences to and more structures. This can cause them to perform mental tasks at the same or higher levels than young adults. Aging still causes deterioration of neuronal pathways but a recent study has shown elderly people that are actively learning new things had higher performance in unrelated memory tasks.

Creating False Memories

Flashbulb Memories

Elizabeth Loftus