Important People:
Penny Patterson: Koko’s (gorilla who supposedly speaks more than 1,000 words in American Sign Language) teacher. Patterson worked with Koko on sign language and songs.
Peter Wason: (1968) first to demonstrate confirmation bias. Wason created an experiment where the participants were asked determine the rule for a set of numbers, and generate additional sets of numbers that conformed to their hypothesized rule.
Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman: cognitive psychologists who found that heuristics often provide handy mental shortcuts to problem solving. They also identified that a second type of heuristic leads to erroneous decisions and ineffective problem solving. Criticism: Heuristics ignore base-rate information.
Sternberg and Lubart: Created the investment theory (creative people are also willing to “buy low and sell high” in the realm of ideas. Suggested that creativity requires the coming together of interrelated sources (intellect, knowledge, thinking, personality, motivation, and environment).
Benjamin Whorf: Linguist, states that the language a person speaks largely determines that person’s thoughts. Criticism: criticized in Rosh’s experiment (below).
Eleanor Rosch: found counterevidence for Whorf’s hypothesis when she experimentally tested his ideas with the Dani tribe in New Guinea. Found that the Dani could discriminate among color hues just as well as people speaking languages with multiple names for colors.
Charles Darwin: proposed that most emotional expressions, such as smiles, frowns, and looks of disgust, are universal and innate. Supported by the fact that children who are born blind and deaf exhibit the same facial expressions for emotions as sighted and hearing children.
Winthrop and Luella Kellogg: Set out to answer if non-human animals could communicate. Raised a baby chimpanzee for several years alongside their son of about the same age. Criticism: Failed because apes do not have the necessary anatomical structure to vocalize the way humans do.
David Premack: taught a chimp to “read” and “write” by arranging plastic symbols on a magnetic board. Criticisms: the apes are unable to learn the rules of grammar and syntax and they do not express the concept of time, request information, comment, or express similarities. Others raise the issue of operant conditioning; claim nonhuman animals do not have a conceptual understanding of the complex signs and symbols of language.
David Wechsler: defined intelligence as the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment. Also developed the most widely used intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (test designed for different age groups).
Charles Spearman: proposed that intelligence is a single factor, which he termed general intelligence. He based his theory on his observation that high scores on separate tests of mental abilities, tend to correlate to each other. Standardized tests are based on his results.
L.L. Thurstone: proposed the seven mental abilities: comprehension, word fluency, numeral fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning. He disagreed with Spearman’s findings.
J.P. Guilford: expanded Thurstone’s results. Proposed that as many as 120 factors were involved in the structure of intelligence.
Raymond Cattell: reanalyzed Thurstone’s data and argued against multiple intelligences. Agreed with Spearman; overall intelligence does exist. He suggested the two subtypes of intelligence: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
Howard Gardner: believes in multiple intelligences. Believes different intelligences are located in different areas of the brain. Created multiple intelligences: linguistic, spatial, kinesthetic, intra-personal, logical, musical, inter-personal, naturalistic, and spiritual, as well as careers.
Robert Sternberg: triarchic theory of successful intelligence. Believes the outward products of intelligence are thinking processes we use to arrive at answers. Proposed three aspects of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical. Stresses importance of applying mental abilities to ‘real world’ situations.
Alfred Binet: created the first widely used IQ test in France; Lewis Terman: developed the Stanford-Binet which added items and revised Binet’s scoring procedure. Results are expressed in terms of mental age. (IQ and MA/CA).
*all psychologist tests must fulfill three basic requirements to be scientifically successful: standardization, reliability, and validity*
Lewis Terman: used teach recommendations and IQ tests to identify 1500 gifted children with IQs of 140 of higher, and then tracked their progress through adulthood (he predicted they would be successful later in life). Criticism: not every “gifted” child was successful later in life; these gifted children had same success rate as average children, prediction is inaccurate.
James Flynn: credited with the Flynn Effect
Naom Chompsky: credited with the Language Acquisition Device
REVIEW OF PEOPLE IN CHAPTER 8
Spearman: intelligence is “g”, a general intelligence.
Thurstone: intelligence is seven distinct mental abilities.
Guilford: intelligence is composed of 120 or more separate abilities.
Cattell: intelligence is two types of “g”-fluid and crystallized.
Gardner: eight or possibly nine types of intelligence.
Sternberg-Triarchic theory of intelligence.
Stanford-Binet-measures cognitive abilities ages 3 to 16.
Wechsler-measures cognitive and nonverbal abilities of three distinct age levels.



Vocabulary:

1. Algorithm
A set of steps that, if followed correctly, will eventually solve the problem
2. Artificial concept
artificially things combine to create a few properties of the concept.
3. Availability heuristic
Judging the likelihood of probability of an even based on how readily available other instances of the even are in memory
4. Babbling
Vowel/consonant combinations that infants begin to produce at about 4 to 6 months of age
5. Base-rate information
refers to information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population.
6. Cognition
Mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge
7. Concepts
Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics
8. Confirmation Bias
Preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
9. Convergent thinking
Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer
10. Cooing
Vowel-like sounds infants produce beginning around 2 to 3 months of age
11. Creativity
the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
12. Critical Period
refers to the assumption that Language learning depends on biological maturation, and is easier to accomplish prior to puberty.
13. Crystallized intelligence
Knowledge and skills gained through experience and education that tend to increase over the life span
14. Divergent thinking
Thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas; a major element of creativity
15. Fluid intelligence
Aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independent of education and tend to decline as people age
16. Fluency
refers to the ability to read a text accurately and quickly.
17. Flexibility
one of two (2) higher Order factors of intelligence conceived by Cattell.
18. Functional fixedness
Tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way
19. Grammar
Rules that tell how phonemes, morphemes, words/phrases should be combined to express thoughts
20. Heuristic
strategies, or simple rules, used in problem solving and decision making that do not guarantee a solution but offer a likely shortcut to it
21. Hierarchy
refer to Maslow's set of human needs; includes physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, and self-actualization, in order from lowest (most basic) need to highest
22. Insight
therapists analyzing the transference and counter transference relationship with the client
23. Intelligence
Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
24. Language
form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules
25. Language acquisition device
According to Chomsky, an innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar
26. Mental Image
mental representation of previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, or gustatory imagery
27. Mental Set
persisting in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones
28. Morpheme
smallest meaningful unit of language, formed from a combination of phonemes
29. Originality
efers to the system of culture, leadership, communication, and group dynamics that determines an organization's actions.
30. Overextension
overly broad use of a word to include objects that do not fit the word's meaning
31. Overgeneralization
people view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which their behavior was caused by intrinsic reasons
32. Phoneme
smallest basic unit of speech or sound
33. Prototypes
A representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category
34. Reliability
A measure of the consistency and stability of test scores when the test is re-administered
35. Reliability Types
• Inter-rater: Different people, same test.
Test-retest: Same people, different times.
Parallel-forms: Different people, same time, different test.
Internal consistency: Different questions, same construct.
36. Representativeness heuristic
Estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match our previous prototype
37. Savant Syndrome
A condition in which a person with mental retardation exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field
38. Semantics
Meaning, or the study of meaning, derived from words and word combinations
39. Standardization
Establishment of the norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
40. Stereotype threat
Negative stereotypes about minority groups cause some member to doubt their abilities
41. Syntax
Grammatical rules that specify how words and phrases should be arranged in a sentence to convey meaning
42. Telegraphic Speech
Two or three word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words
43. Thinking
Component of cognition, using information and knowledge to perform mental activities
44. Validity
refers to the extent to which a measure actually assesses the dimension or construct that the researcher sets out to measure.
45. Validity Types
External- generalization
Internal- measure that ensures that a researcher’s experiment design closely follows the principle of cause and effect

46. Flynn Effect:
Cultural and societal advances have caused a pseudo-increase in IQ for the general population
47. Stanford - Binet Test
Measures cognitive abilities of children ages 3 to 16
48. G Factor
Intelligence can be measured as a single factor; general intelligence
49. Emotional IQ
Goleman's term for the ability to know and manage one's emotions, empathize with others, and maintain satisfying relationships
50. Achievement vs. Aptitude Test
Measures what has been learned and gained separately than the test-taker'f potential for further learning and development
51. Heritability of IQ
Identical twins have a significantly higher correlation between their IQ test scores
52. WAIS, WISC
Tests developed by David Wechsler; they are the most widely used intelligence tests
53. Degrees of Mental Retardation
- Mild: IQ scores range from 50-70, affecting 85% of the mentally retarded poulation
- Moderate: IQ scores range from 35-49, affecting 10% of the mentally retarded population
- Severe: IQ scores range from 20-34, affecting 3-4% of the mentally retarded population
- Profound: IQ scores are below 20, affecting 1-2% of the mentally retarded population
54. Gardener's Multiple IQ
Intelligence is comprised of multiple factors; Gardener theorized 9 unique intelligence factors
55. Sternberg's Theory
There are three aspects of Inelligence: analytical, creative, practical



Outline:


I) Thinking

A. What is thinking?
1. Forming ideas, reasoning, solving problems, drawing conclusions, expressing thoughts, or comprehending the thoughts of others
B. Cognitive Building Blocks: The Foundation of Thought
1. Thought processes are distributed throughout the brain in networks of neurons
2. Frontal lobes are responsible for functions like the ability to plan ahead or evaluate info
3. Frontal lobes also link to other important areas of the brain, like the limbic system
4. Limbic system is largely responsible for emotion
5. Three basic components of thinking: mental images, concepts, and language

a. Mental Images
i. A representation of previously remembered sensory experiences
ii. Each person has a “mental space” where we visualize and manipulate our sensory images.
iii.Where are most creative ideas come from

b. Concepts
i. Representation of a group that shares similar qualities
ii. Form concepts for abstract ideas as well
iii.Essential to thinking because they simplify and organize information
iv.Learn through the use of three major strategies

        • Artificial concepts: created from logical rules or definitions, example: a triangle, often used in the sciences and other academic disciplines
        • concepts/prototypes: based on personal ideas of that particular concept, example: when we see animals flying we think birds because of our previously learned idea of what a bird is, we may think of a sparrow or a tucan, mental shortcut
        • Hierarchies: Certain concepts are grouped as smaller catagories within bigger ones, example: we learn what a computer and a phone is before we identify them as being electronics



C. Problem Solving: Three Steps to the Goal
1. Preparation (To help let’s say that I am trying to figure out what I want in a college)a. Identify given facts: I know for a fact that I want a big school, I want to go to a four year college, and I want to be far away from homeb. Separate the relevant from the irrelevant: I do not care about the weather and it doesn’t need to necessarily be in a big cityc. Defining the ultimate goal: I want to enjoy my college experience2. Production a. The problem solver in this stage starts to come up with solutionsb. There are two ways of doing this: algorithms, and heuristicsi. algorithm: will always produce a solution, is step by stepii. heuristic: a strategy that may or may not help to solve the problem (in my previous example my heuristic may be to look for state universities instead of private universities not in the state of AZ)3. Evaluationa. The different solutions you came up with must be evaluated to see if they line up with the criteria named in step 1b. If so, problem solved!D. Applying Psychology to Every Day Life
1. Mental Sets: Sticking to strategies that have previously worked instead of venturing off to try new ones.
2. Functional Fixedness: The tendency to think an object is only useful for its normal task

        • For example you may view cork as being a product used purely for cork boards, instead of being able to be used as a coaster

external image kaTILJ6JJFRVfzldgoC3OHpYNbAMcNCg88WzFU8tSj_49JU6KWeQnlY9ez9s3Ar63Y7esSl8_HK_EaDHsSJ3sPRFCAGSrr-hexs09rDyvaTwRbc4A_8 -Confirmation Bias: Choosing to believe positive information that confirms an individual’s beliefs or opinions, while ignoring negative information that does not.

        • Peter Wason, a British researcher, was the first to demonstrat this phenomenon with his guess the rule question

-Availability Heuristic: Finding an event to be probable based on how many times you remember the event occuring

        • For example lets say you are not aware when your Psychology test is supposed to take place, but your tests are normally on Tuesdays, you may assume that your test is on Tuesday because it has been this way so many times in the past

-Representativeness heuristic: Estimating the likelihood of something based on previous prototypes

        • For example, if you were told Sasha is blonde, enthusiastic, and a fan of sports games would you assume that Sasha is a cheerleader or a banker? In most cases because of the representativeness heuristic you would assume Sasha is a cheerleader

E. Creativity: Finding Unique Solutions
1. Creativity is found in everyone, and is the ability to come up with solutions or outcomes in a different way
2. 3 Characteristics
a. Originality: seeing the uniqueness of somethingb. Fluency: coming up with a lot of solutionsc. Flexibility: the ability to change from one problem strategy to another3. Divergent Thinking: Providing many ideas to choose from
4. Convergent Thinking: Narrowing down a list of ideas
5. Researching Creativity
a. Some researchers view creativity as a personality traitb. Other researchers think creativity has to do with your cognitive processc. Sternberg and Lubart’s Investment Theory creative people work with ideas that others may find useless or hopeless. d. According to the Investment Theory you must have these six qualities: intellectual ability, knowledge, thinking style, personality, motivation, and environmentIII) Language
A. Characteristics of Language: Structure and Production
-Language is only defined as being sounds and symbols that are combined with certain rules
1. Building Block of Language

a. Phonemes and Morphemes
i. Phonemes: smallest unit of speech/sound ii. Morpheme: smallest meaningful unit of language made by a combination of phonemes

          • example: it
iii. Then phonemes and morphemes are made into sentences using grammar which includes syntax (aka the order of words/phrases) and semantics (meaning of words/ phrases)B. Language and Thought: A complex interaction
1. Thinking and Language are interrelated
2. Benjamin Whorf stated according to his
linguistic relativity hypotheses that the language a person speaks dictates their thoughts, experimented with the Eskimos
3. People who speak different languages reportedly have different ideas of the world around them
4. Many flaws in the hypotheses however when studying the Dani tribe in New Guinea Eleanor Rosch found counterevidence to this study
5. Know that Whorf went too far however studies show that language does influence thought
6. People who are bilingual say they tend to adopt the norms of the language they are speaking while they are speaking it
7. Words evoke images and judgments
C. Language Development: From Crying to Talking
1. From birth a child can communicate to caregivers
a. facial expressionsb. eye contactc. body gestures2. Stages of Language Development
a. Children also communicate verbally

b. Prelinguistic stage: reflexive cry, 3 distinct patterns of crying (hunger, anger, and pain)
c. 2 to 3 months start cooing (producing vowel sounds)
i. “gaaaa” “ahhh”
d. 4 to 6 months start babbling (adding consonants)
i. dahdahdahdah

e. Linguistic stage: begins toward the end of the first year of life, sounds babies make start to sound more like words
i. Their ability to express their thoughts and feeling doubles once they are able to form short phrases
ii. Overextension: when children use words to include objects that do not fit into the actual meaning

      • When a baby learns the word fish, anything that swims they think is a fish

f. Start to use telegraphic speech: leaving out the nonessential connecting words an example of this is like “is” or “but”
g. Children also have the tendency to
overgeneralize or overuse the rules of grammar
h. By age 5 however most children have mastered the basic rules of grammar and language and know around 2,000 words3. Theories of Language Development
a. Two basic theories:
i. It is in our nature
-
Language Aquisition Device (LAD) - Chomsky claims that all children are born with the LAD and this gives them the ability to understand the basic rules of grammar.
ii. It is a result of nurture
- learned through rewards, punishment, and imitation during early development.
D. Animals and Language: Can the Human Animal Talk to Nonhuman Animals?1. Introductiona. It is a known fact that animals all communicate, but people are now trying to interpret and teach human language to them b. Winthrop and Luella Kellog (1933) raised a baby chimpanzee and were only able to teach it some basic hand gestures and signsc. Beatrice and Allen Gardener (1969) taught a chimp named Washoe how to communicate through the use of American Sign Language. She learned 132 signs in 4 yearsd. David Premack (1976) taught a chimp to use plastic magnetic symbols to communicate through written language and to read e. Penny Patterson (2002) taught her chimp, Koko, over 1000 signs f. Dolphins seem to have the ability to grasp audible commands with complex or varying syntax and grammar

2. Evaluating Animal Language Studies
a. Scientists are unsure if animal communication can be classified as language
i. Animals have a limited amount of ideas
ii. Animals don't understand nuances, express time, request information, address feelings, or make comparisons.
iii. Sentences that are used or understood by animals are significantly shorter
iv. We don't know if it's imitation and reward or genuine comprehension and understanding with animals
IV. INTELLIGENCE
A. Introduction: Intelligence is judged in various ways, and depends on the skills that are of value to a particular group of people or to a particular culture
B. What is Intelligence? Do We Have One or Many Intelligences?
1. Intelligence remains a difficult topic due to the fact that it can be perceived in various different times according to a particular group of people or culture
2. Intelligence as a Single Ability
a. Earlier on psychologist believed intelligence was innate, and included all cognitive abilitiesb. Charles Spearman (1923) proposed that intelligence was instead only one factor i. Termed this idea general intelligenceii. Based theory on the fact that people who scored highly on a spacial test also score high on a reasoning testiii. Because of this correlation Spearman believed that this (g) was beneath all intellectual behavior iv. Now we all used standardized tests to measure someone’s general intelligence3. Intelligence as Multiple Abilitiesa. L.L. Thurstone (1938) proposed seven primary mental abilitiesi. verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoningb. Later J.P. Gulliford (1967) proposed 120 factors4. Intelligence Again as a Single Abilitya. Raymond Cattel (1963, 1971) agreed with Spearman about general intelligence, but suggested two subtypesi. Fluid Intelligence (g)- Innate intelligence: reasoning, memory, info processing, meant to decrease as life goes on- Ex: If asked what a particular phrase or proverb means, you would rely on your fluid intelligenceii. Crystallized Intelligence (cg)- Knowledge acquired through experiences and learning, meant to increase as your life goes on- Ex: If asked how to define world hunger, you would rely on your crystallized intelligence to come up with the answer- Recent studies show an increase in frontal lobe activity during difficult activities, which would back up the idea of (g)5. A Return to Multiple Intelligences
a. Cognitive theorists now believe that intelligence is a collection of specific abilities that are still seperate
b.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
i. Howard Gardner is credited with the theoryii. Said that people have many kinds of intelligencesiii. Said this after studying brain damaged patients who retained some of their intellectual abilities but not others iv. Identified 8 (9) unique intelligences

        • Linguistic: language, speaking, etc.
        • Spatial: able to determine how things fit in a space
        • Bodily/ Kinesthetic: body movements, coordination
        • Intrapersonal: understanding one’s abilities
        • Logical/Mathematical: problem solving, analysis, logic
        • Musical: musical ability
        • Interpersonal: social skills
        • Naturalistic: noticing things about nature, being eco friendly
        • (Maybe) Spiritual/Existential: being aware of the meaning of life and death

v. Gardner challanged IQ tests saying we should focus more on identifying people’s strengths rather than coming up with a single number


Figure 3
c. Sternberg’s Triarchic (Three-Part) Theory of Successful Intelligencei. Robert Sternberg proposed this theoryii. Thinking processes, or how we arrive at a particular answer are the most important out of anything we study
iii. Proposed 3 aspects of intelligence
- analytical: good at analizing
- creative: good at coming up with new ideas or answers, imaginative
- practical: good at analyzing implications, good at applications and execution of a project
iv. Important because he does not simply focus on the end product, but the process of getting there
v. Always was for testing mental abilities in real situations rather than having people be tested alone in a controlled environment Figure 4
vi. Related to Garnder in that both he and Sternberg believe in multiple aspects of intelligence
C. How Do We Measure Intelligence? IQ Tests and Scientific Standards
1. Introduction: IQ tests are used for many things ranging from the admissions process in colleges, to predictors of appropriate academic preformance
2. Individual IQ Testsa. Alfred Binet created the first commonly used IQ test in France around 1900
b. Lewis Terman (1916) developed the Stanford-Binet which contained additional items and a revised scoring system for Binet’s original test
c. IQ stands for “intelligence quotient”
d. In the beginning were expressed in terms of a mental age- to determine IQ mental age was divided by the child’s actual age and then multiplied by 100
3. The Wechsler Tests
a. David Wechsler developed the most widely used IQ test
b. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
c. Also created a test for children called The Wechsler Scale for Children d. He even created one for pre-school children,
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
e. Contains seperate verbal and preformance scores
f. Advantages include: being designed for specific age groups, different abilities can be evaluated together or seperate, you do not have to speak English to understand and take the test
4. Scientific Standards for Psychological Testsa. All test must be three things:i. Standardized: established norms and uniform procedures for giving the testii. Reliable: must be consistent when the test is readministerediii. Valid: test measures what it is meant to measure - types of validity include criterion-related validity, accuracy of how well test scores can be used to predict anther variable of interest

V. THE INTELLIGENCE CONTROVERSY
A. Extremes in Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness1. Introduction
a. Intelligence tests are key in diagnosing mental retardation or mental giftedness 2. Mental Retardationa. IQ is less than 70b. Apparent inabilities to adapt to and function fully in societyc. There are varying degrees of mental retardationi. Less than 1-3% of the general population would be classified as mentally retarded while 85% of that 1-3% are classified as mildly retardedd. Down Syndrome results from an extra chromosome. e. Drug and Alcohol abuse during pregnancy, extreme neglect in early childhood, and severe accidents may cause mental retardationf. Savant Syndrome is when a person who qualifies as mentally retarded excels in one narrow and specific subject3. Mental Giftednessa. Top 1-2% of IQ scoresb. Possible positive correlation between mental giftedness, height, and strengthc. Not all people who are mentally gifted are successful; environmental aspects play a large role d. Longitudinal studies of mentally gifted kids have broken down many stereotypes






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