insight - sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution

critical period - a period of special sensitivity to specific types of learning that shapes the capacity for future developments

Flynn Effect – James Flynn attempt to explain the increase in intelligence scores over past generations; 1. Level of public education 2. People have become more proficient test takers 3. Intelligence increases with better nutrition; he believes that intelligence tests are not evaluating intelligence but instead “some weak link to intelligence”

Stanford-Binet Test – Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman; include: copying geometric designs, identifying similarities, repeating sequence of numbers; first widely used IQ test in France; now considered to measure “a comparison of a single person’s score to a national sample of similar aged people”

‘G’ Factor – g = single factor; debate over whether intellifence is compoased of “g (single) factors” or multiple factors

Split-Half – splitting a test into two equivalent parts and comparing the degree of similarity between the two halves

Test-retest – comparing participants’ scores on two separate administrations of a test

WAIS – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; David Wechsler’s intelligence test

WISC – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; David Wechsler’s intelligence test

WPPSI – Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence; David Wechsler’s intelligence test

Degree of Mental Retardation –
Mild: 50-70 IQ Score; 85% of mentally retarded population; usually able to become self-sufficient; may marry, have families, and secure full-time jobs in unskilled occupations
Moderate: 35-49 IQ Score; 10% of mentally retarded population; able to perform simple unskilled tasks, may contribute to a certain extent to their livelihood
Severe: 20-34 IQ Score; 3-4% of mentally retarded population; able to follow daily routines, but with continual supervision, with training, may learn basic communication skills
Profound: below 20 IQ Score; 1-2% of mentally retarded population; able to perform only the most rudimentary behaviors, such as walking, feeding themselves, and saying a few phrases

Gardner’s Multiple IQ – Howard Gardner; people possess different profiles and kinds of intelligence that they sue differently; some areas are stronger than others: linguistics, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, and spiritual/existential

Sternberg’s Triarchic (Three-Part) Theory of Successful Intelligence – Robert Sternberg; analytical, creative, and practical; emphasize underlying thinking rather than just the finished product; incorporating mental abilities to real-world situations; successful intelligence (adapt, shape, select environments to accomplish goals)

Heritability of IQ – race and ethnicity, like intelligence itself, are almost impossible to define; Minnesota Study (Twins Reared Apart) shows that heredity equips us with unlearned capacities

Achievement vs. Aptitude Test – achievement test measure a person’s learned and acquired knowledge while aptitude tests measure an individual’s ability to develop skills and obtain knowledge

Chapter 8 Outline
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

I. Thinking
1. Frontal Lobes
a. primarily responsible for higher functions like the ability to plan ahead or to
synthesize and evaluate information
b. links the limbic system, which is responsible for generating emotions
2. Mental Images
a. mental representation of a previous experience
b. constant use of mental imagery is critical to success (ie. athletes)
3. Concepts
a. mental representations of a group/ category
b. formed by grouping together objects that have similarities
c. simplify and organize information
4. Three major strategies to create concepts
a. Artificial (formal) concepts
- rules for inclusion are specifically defined
- core part of the sciences and other academic disciplines
b. Natural concepts/ prototypes
- use prototypes: based on personal best example
- an efficient mental shortcut
- not used when experiencing something new
c. Hierarchies
- specific concepts are grouped as subcategories w/in broader concepts
external image Simple-hierarchy.png
- Superordinate categories (highest/broadest), mid-level categories, and subordinate categories (lowest)
- middle categories (basic- level concepts) are used when we first learn something (ie. we learn bird or dog before animal, parakeet, and poodle)

1. Problem Solving: Three Steps to the Goal
A. given state → goal state
B. involves three steps for completion
2. Step 1: Preparation
A. identify given facts, seperate relevant from irrelevant facts, and defining the ultimate goal
3. Step 2: Production
A. algorithms and heuristics are essential for completion of step two
B.Algorithms are steps which always lead to a solution to the problem
C. Heuristics are strategies, but they do not guarantee a definite solution
4.) Step 3: Evaluation
A. for results, a hypothesis must be formuated before evaluation
B.if not, the problem regresses back to step 2
5.) Five barriers to problem solving
external image thinkingcapwhoa.gif
A. Mental sets
- reverting back to habit as opposed to new solutions, or ideas
- for example, a mental set could be related to solving a problem including writing an essay in the format as learned in middle school, and having to adjust when entering high school
B. Functional fixedness
-seeing objects as having only one usual function
-for example, viewing a salad tosser as only a means to toss salad, and not to scoop ice cream, this is functional fixedness
C.Confirmation bias
-the preference for ideas of concepts that appeal to one the most, while ignoring evidence of the contrary
- for example, feeling that receiving vaccines will do no good because they are painful, even though there is factual information promoting the good qualities
D. Availability heuristic
-refers to the increased chance of someone choosing something easily recalled in their memory, rather than a new experience
-does not have to have a connection with data
E.Representative heuristic
- estimating or assuming probability of something according to previous prototypes
-usually evades base- rate information, or using the representative heuristic within the general population
1. Creativity: Finding Unique Solutions
A. “creativity is the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way”(297).
B. creativity entails a wide variety of actions, for example, a girl could be a dancer,and another girl could cook a meal, using her creativity differently; all exhibit a degree of creativity in these actions.
C. aids in problem solving
2. Measuring Creativity
A.three characteristics to determine creativity include: originality, fluency, and flexibility
B.Originality involves seeing unique solutions to problems, fluency, refers to the generation of solutions, and finally flexibility is shifting types of problem solvers(297).
C. two types of creative thinking: divergent and convergent
D. divergent thinking yields various ideas or solutions
E. convergent thinking includes only one solution
3. Researching Creativity
A. many researchers search for personality traits they can define as creative
B. others explain creativity using cognitive processes
C. the difference being how noncreative and creative people “encode information, in how they store it, and in what information they generate to solve problems”
D. Sternberg and Lubart
(a). investment theory: creative people are more likely to develop undervalued ideas “buy low, sell high”(298).
E. suggests that creativity requires combining: intellectual ability,knowledge, thinking style, personality, motivation, and environment

· Enables us to mentally manipulate symbols, expanding our thinking
· Allows us to communicate our thoughts, ideas, and feelings
A. Characteristics of Language: Structure and Production
· Language- form of communication using sounds and symbols combined a according to specified rules
· Building Blocks of Language
1. Phonemes- smallest basic unit of speech or sound; 40 phonemes
example: a, b, c
2. Morphemes- smallest meaningful units of language
a. Content morphemes- hold basic meaning of a word (example: cat)
b. Function morphemes- prefixes and suffixes (example: un-, dis-, -able, -ing)
3. Grammar- rules that specify how phonemes, morphemes, words, and p hrases should be combined to express thoughts
a. Syntax- grammatical rules that specify how words and phrases should be arranged in a sentence to convey meaning
b. Semantics- meaning, or the study of meaning, derived from words and word combinations
B. Language and Thought: A Complex Interaction
· Benjamin Whorf- linguist; the language a person speaks largely determines that person’s thoughts (linguistic relativity hypothesis)
- although it may be easier to express a particular idea in one language than in another, language does not necessarily determine how or what we think
- language influences thought
C. Language Development: From Crying to Talking
· Charles Darwin – most emotional expressions (smiles, frowns, looks of disgust) are universal and innate
- Example: children who are born blind and deaf exhibit the same facial expressions for emotions as sighted and hearing children
· Stages of Language Development
external image body_language.jpg
- Pre-linguistic stage – newborn baby’s reflexive cry
a. Cooing – verbal like sounds infants produce beginning around 2/3 months
b. Babbling – vowel/consonant combinations that infants begin to produce at about 4/6 months
- Linguistics stage – begins towards end of the first year of life
a. Overextension – overly broad use of a word to include objects that do not fit the word’s meaning (ex: call all 4 legged mammals “dog”)
b. Telegraphic Speech – two or three word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words
c. Overgeneralization – applying the basic rules of grammar ever to cases that are exceptions to the rule (ex: saying “mans” rather than “men”)
· Theories of Language Development
- Language = nature + nurture
a. NATURE: growth and development
§ Noam Chomsky- children are born prewired to learn language
§ Language Acquisition Device (LAD) – innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar; needs only minimal exposure to adult speech to unlock
§ Babbling is same in all languages; Pattern parallels motor development
§ FAIL: does not explain individual differences
b. NUTURE: individual differences and distinct languages
§ Rewards, punishments, imitation
D. Animals and Language: Can the Human Animal Talk to Nonhuman Animals?
· Winthrop and Luella Kellogg (1933): raise baby chimpanzee alongside their son
- RESULTS: apes do not have the necessary anatomical structure to vocalize like humans
· Beatrice and Allen Gardner (1969): most successful non-vocal language study (Washoe)
- Manual dexterity of chimpanzees
- American Sign Language (ASL)
- 132 signs learned
· David Premack (1976): Sarah (chimp)
- Sarah taught to “read” and “write”
- Use plastic symbols
- Grammatical Rules
· Penny Patterson (2002): Koko (chimp)
- 1000 signs learned
· Evaluating Animal Language Studies
- Is this really “true language”?
- Animals Cannot:
a. Concept of time (tomorrow)
b. Request Information (how do birds fly?)
c. Comment on Feelings of Others (Penny is sad)
d. Express Similarities (that cloud looks like a tree)
e. Propose Possibilities (that cat might sit on my lap)
- Non-human animals do not have a conceptual understanding of the complex signs and symbols of language
- Non-human animals can learn and use many basic forms of language
- Non-human animal language: less complex, creative, and rule-laden than human language

III. Intelligence
A. Intelligence is, according to Wechsler, the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
B. It is not a physical, concrete thing. It does not have any mass, nor take up any space. It is an abstract concept.
C. There is great debate over whether we have one or many intelligences
i. Intelligence as a single ability
a. Charles Spearman (1923) suggested the idea of a general intelligence, (g).
(a) This can be found underlying all intellectual behavior.
(b) This was founded on the observation that there was a correlation of high scores on tests testing different abilities.
(c) Mnemonic device: a spear pierces everything, and Charles Spearman’s general intelligence pierces all other aspects of intelligence
ii. Intelligence as multiple abilities
a. L.L Thurston (1938) said that intelligence consisted of seven different abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning.
(a) Was seen as radical
iii. Intelligence again as a single ability
a. Raymond Cattell (1963, 1971) believed in (g), however he thought that there were two types:
(a) Fluid Intelligence (gf): this is innate knowledge, such as memory and speed of information processing, which tends to decrease over time.
(i) Not related to education
(ii) Mnemonic device: Fluid intelligence flow fluidly from parent to child, its innate.
(b) Crystallized Intelligence (gc): this is knowledge and skills that are accumulated over a lifetime, either through education or experience.
(i) Example: explaining the steps involved in building a pool or pumping gas.
b. Studies show that intelligent people usually show less frontal lobe activity. This is because activities are not as difficult for them, therefore needing less brain power than a less intelligent person.
iv. A return to multiple intelligences
a. Many people believe that (g) consists of many separate abilities.
b. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
(a) People have many different kinds of intelligences that are located in different areas throughout the brain.
(b) Consists of 8 or 9 different intelligences: linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, and spiritual/existential.
(i) Each corresponds to certain careers: linguistic (novelist, journalist, teacher), spatial (engineer, architect, pilot), bodily/kinesthetic (athlete, dancer, ski instructor), intrapersonal (almost any career), logical/mathematical (mathematical, scientist, engineer), musical (singer, musician, composer), interpersonal (salesperson, manager, therapist, teacher), naturalistic (biologist, naturalist), spiritual/existential (philosopher, theologian)
(ii) Each person also has a different profile of intelligence
( c) He wants teachers to teach material in a variety of ways to accommodate different intelligences, and also wants testing to focus on an individual’s strengths.
c. Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic (three-part) Theory of Success
(a) The reasoning process is more important than the actual answer.
(b) There are three parts of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
(c) Emphasizes the importance of applying intelligence to real-world situations
(d) Successful Intelligence: the ability to adapt to, shape, and select environments in order to accomplish personal and societal goals.
A. Measuring Intelligence
i. Many college admission offices and workplaces measure intelligence as a criteria
ii. Individual IQ tests
a. Alfred Binet from France was the first to make a standard IQ test, known as the Stanford-Binet.
(a) It determined your intelligence quotient (IQ), which is found by dividing your mental age by your actual age, and multiplying that by 100 percent.
b. Today, IQ tests do not compute an individual score, but compare your score to a national sample of scores or people who are close to your age.
(a) Most people score within 1 standard deviation (15 points) of the national average.
iii. The Wechsler Tests
a. David Wechsler
b. Developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which is being used in its third edition (WAIS-III)
c. Developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III)
d. Developed the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), now revised to (WPPSI-R)
e. These test yield two separate scores: a verbal and a performance
f. Three advantages:
(a) Can test different age groups
(b) Different abilities can be evaluated separately
(c ) Can be given to non-English speakers
iv. Scientific Standards for Psychological Tests
a. Standardization
(a) Every test needs to have norms, which are developed through the results of a representative sample
(b) Also the procedures associated with the test must be standardized, for example, the rules of taking, giving, and scoring the test, must be the same for each test.
b. Reliability
(a) This measures the consistency of a test
(b) This can be measured by a test-retest method, where the participant retakes the test to verify it yields consistent results, or a split-half method, where the test is split in half to be scored and the scores for both halves must be similar.
c. Validity
(a) The ensures that the test measures what it supposed to measure
(i) Criterion-related validity measures how well the scores determine another variable of interest (the criterion). This is expressed as a correlation.

external image DePaul%20makes%20standardized%20test%20scores%20optional%20-%20Slover%20Linett%20blog.jpg

IV. Intelligence Controversy

Note: intelligence is extremely difficult to define
- Psychologists differ on
1. Is it composed of single factor or multiple abilities?
2. Is it inherited or is it a result of environment?
3. Are IQ tests culturally biased against certain ethnic groups?

A. Extremes in Intelligence: Mental Retardation and Giftedness
- To judge the validity of any test, one of the best methods is to compare people who score at the extremes
- Those who score lowest on standard IQ tests DO have clear differences in intellectual abilities compared to those who score at the top
- Intelligence tests provide one of major criteria for diagnosing mental retardation and giftedness

B. Mental Retardation
- Applied when
1. Someone is significantly below the average in general intellectual function (IQ LESS THAN 70)
2. Someone has significant deficits in adaptive functioning (i.e.: communicating with others, living independently, social or occupational functioning, maintaining safety and health)
- Can be mild to severe; less than 1 to 3 percent of general population= classified as mentally retarded
- Causes
1. Genetic (i.e.: down syndrome, which results from extra chromosome in body’s cell)
2. Environmental (alcohol, other drug abuse during pregnancy)
3. Extreme deprivation or neglect in early life
4. Postnatal accidents that damage parts of the brain
5. No known causes
- Academic settings help to distinguish cases if mild retardation
- People can score low on some measures of intelligence and still be average and gifted in other areas
- Savant syndrome – condition in which a person with mental retardation exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field (rapid calculation, art, memory or musical ability)
example: someone who is mentally retarded is very skilled at sculpture

C. Mental Giftedness
- People with especially high IQ’s
- 1921, Lewis Terman, used teacher rec’s & IQ tests to identify 1500 gifted children with IQ’s of 140 or higher
· He tracked there progress through adult hood
· Found that: as children, they received excellent grades, socially well adjusted, taller, stronger
· But by 40’s, those who became research scientists, engineers, physicians, lawyers, college teachers, was many times the number a random group would have provided
· However, some notable failures
· Therefore, a high IQ score does not guarantee success in every endeavor, it only offers more intellectual opportunities

D. Are IQ Tests Culturally Biased?
- 1969, Arthur Jensen began debated when he argued that intelligence is largely genetic in origin
· Therefore, genetic factors are “strongly implicated” as cause of ethnic differences in intelligence
- Psychologists responses vary
1. Some ethnic groups do score differently on IQ tests: in U.S., Asian-American children’s core slightly higher on standardized IQ tests then Europeans-American children, who in turn score higher than African-American, Latino or Native American
2. Lack of cultural exposure to the concepts required on IQ tests can result in lowered IQ scores: tests may not be an accurate measure of true capability- they may be culturally biased
3. Group differences in IQ may have more to do with socioeconomic differences than ethnicity: African-Americans + most other minorities, are far more likely to live in poverty than whites; environmental effects of poverty (poor prenatal care, poorly funded schools, lack of textbooks & other resources) clearly affect score
4. IQ does have a substantial genetic component: racial and ethnic differences may reflect underlying hereditary differences
5. Intelligence is not a fixed characteristic: IQ scores have increased from one generation to the next
· Fluid intelligence- typically measured with problem solving task, increased 15 points per generation
· Crystallized intelligence- generally assessed by vocabulary and math skills, have increased 9 points per generation
· James Flynn: Flynn Effect believes such increases may reflect the fact that intelligence tests aren’t actually measuring intelligence but rather some weak link to intelligence
· Flynn Effect: 1. Level of public education 2. People have become more proficient test-takers 3. Intelligence increases with better nutrition
6. Differences in IQ scores reflect motivational and language factors: a child successful in school is sometimes ridiculed from his or her classmates; children grow up speaking language of their culture and dialect of neighborhood which may not match that in the educational system
7. Members of every ethnic group can be found to have scores at all levels of the IQ scale: bell curbs show considerable overlap, & IQ scores & intelligence have their greatest relevance in terms of individuals not groups
8. Stereotype threats can significantly reduce the test scores of people in stereotyped groups: an individuals performance on IQ test depends in party on the individual’s expectations about how he or she will do which are often shaped by cultural stereotypes
example: Sallie believes that redheads will not perform well on the SAT subject test. She comments to her friend Amy, a redhead, about this, and therefore Amy does not do as well as she could have.

Works Cited

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14 April 2011

14 April 2011


Chapter 8: Important People

Peter Wason (294)- first to demonstrate confirmation bias by asking people to establish rules for number patterns
Amos Tzersky & Daniel Kahneman (295) -discovered that heuristics (simple rules or strategies for problem solving) may lead to solving problems more effectively, or ignore other information
Sternberg & Lubart (298) - responsible for the investment theory, which explains why creative people, “buy low and sell high”, meaning they invest in seemingly unpopular ideas, then “sell” these ideas at a high price, and begin the cycle once again. The investment theory also suggests creativity involves the following resources: intellectual ability,knowledge,thinking style, personality, motivation, and environment.
Benjamin Whorf (301)- known for the linguistic relativity hypothesis stating that the language a person speaks determines a person’s thoughts; people who speak different languages see the world around them differently.
Eleanor Rosch (301)- continued testing Whorf’’s hypothesis through the Dani tribe in New Guinea. Discovered that contrary to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, language does not largely determine how or what a person thinks
Charles Darwin (302) - proposed that emotional expressions (smiles, frowns, looks of disgust) are universal and innate
Noam Chomsky (303) - nature point of view - fails to explain individual differences; children are born pre-wired to learn language; language acquisition device (LAD)- children need only minimal exposure to adult speeh unlock its potential; babbling is same in all languages
Winthrop & Luella Kellogg (303) - (1933) raised baby chimp along side their son; RESULT: chimp learned gestures but never uttered any resemblance of a language...apes do not have necessary anatomical structure to vocalize the way humans do
Beatrice & Allen Gardner (303) - (1969) one of the most successful nonvocal language studies; used Sign Language to communicated with chimp (Washoe); 132 signs learned
David Premack (304) - (1976) taught chimp (Sarah) to “read” and “write” by arranging plastic symbols on a magnetic board; RESULT: learned to use plastic symbols and certain grammatical rules
Penny Patterson (304) - (2002) chimp (Koko) learned 1,000 signs in Sign Language to converse with others, talk to herself, rhyme, lie, joke, deliver personal preferences (example: cats)
David Wechsler (306/310) - developed the most widely used intelligence tests. These include: the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and its third edition, the WAIS III, the WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), and the WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), in addition to its revised edition, the WPPSI-R. These tests have separate verbal and performance scores, and yield a final intelligence score.
Charles Spearman (306) - (1923) proposed that intelligence is a single factor. He named it general intelligence, (g), and suggested that it underlies all intellectual behavior.
L.L. Thurstone (306) - (1938) proposed that there are seven primary mental abilities that make up intelligence: verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning. He did not believe in the concept of (g).
J.P. Guilford (306) - (1967) proposed the idea that there are as many as 120 factors that make up intelligence.
Raymond Cattell (306) - (1971) proposed that there are two subtypes to general intelligence: fluid intelligence, which is innate and decline as people age, and crystallized intelligence, which is accumulated through experience and increases as people age.
Howard Gardner (307-308) - created a theory of multiple intelligences, called Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which says that there are eight (and possible nine) different types of intelligence. Every person has a different profile of intelligence. He believes that intelligence testing should consist of testing someone’s strengths instead of yielding a single IQ score.
Robert Sternberg (308) - proposed his Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence. This has three types of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative. He believes that the thinking processes that we use to arrive at the correct answer are more important than the answers themselves. He stresses the importance of applying mental abilities to the real world rather than testing them by themselves. He also introduces the term s uccessful intelligence.
Alfred Binet (309)- created the first widely used IQ test
Lewis Terman (309/314)- created the Stanford- Binet: which added items and revised Binet’s scoring procedure.
James Flynn (318)- believed intelligence tests don’t actually measure intelligence due to the Flynn Effect. The Flynn Effect: 1) level of public education has increased 2) people have become better test takers 3) intelligence increases with better nutrition.
Claude Steele & Joshua Aronson (318)- first revealed the stereotype threat between African Americans and Whites at Stanford University.

Chapter 8 Interesting Facts

Fact #1
Researchers have created a way to evaluate those considered “creative” and separate those who are considered “non-creative” by mainly taking a look at how they investigate a particular problem, what cognitive processes they use to solve it, and which information they deem useful to store. Through Sternberg and Lubart’s investment theory, the “buy low and sell high” concept is also applied to creative people. They take their high potential ideas that most feel are worthless and wait until they are highly valued and supported so that they will eventually “sell high”. This theory also states that in the minds of “creative” people, six different “but interrelated resources are coming together”: intellectual ability, knowledge, thinking style, personality, motivation, and environment (Huffman 298).

Fact # 2
Research has found that the following can either increase or decrease according to the following: certain smells, feelings of rejection, heredity, feelings of love and acceptance, and weight. Each of these factors provides room for improvement or decline, with the exception of weight, which studies have shown to have no affect whatsoever on the scores.

Fact # 3
Some fun facts about iq and the brain . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/2614152/Some-Fun-Facts-About-IQ-and-the-Brain

“Psychology Project Intelligence” Video

Creative Intelligence Video
“The Three Elements”
Here are three ways to spark creative thinking!

How smart are you? Awareness Test
Huffman , Karen. "Thinking, Language, and Intelligence." Psychology in Action. 8th. Danvers, MA: Joh Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2007. Print.